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Table 1 Comparison of herbal drugs with different botanical source and/or medicinal parts in European Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopoeia

From: Quality standard of traditional Chinese medicines: comparison between European Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopoeia and recent advances

European Pharmacopoeia Chinese Pharmacopoeia
Latin name Botanical origins Medicinal parts Latin name Botanical origins Medicinal parts
Traditional Chinese medicines in both EP and ChP
 Akebiae Caulis Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne. or Akebia trifoliate (Thunb.) Koidz. or mixture of the 2 species Stem Akebiae Caulis Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne., Akebia trifoLiata (Thunb.)Koidz., or Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. var. australis (Diels) Rehd. Lianoid stem
 Amomi Fructus Amomum villosum Lour. or Amomum longiligulare T. L. Wu Ripe fruit Amomi Fructus Amomum villosum Lour., Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen or Amomum longiligulare T. L. Wu Ripe fruit
 Andrographis Herba Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. Flowering and/or fruit-bearing aerial parts Andrographis Herba Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees Aerial part
 Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Franch. & Sav. Root Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. or Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. var. formosana (Boiss.) Shan et Yuan Root
 Astragali Mongholici Radix Astragalus mongholicus Bunge Root Astragali Radix Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao or Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. Root
 Clematidis Armandii Caulis Clematis armandii Franch. Stem Clematidis Armandii Caulis Clematis armandii Franch. or Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. Lianoid stem
 Codonopsis Radix Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. Root Codonopsis Radix Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta (Nannf.) L. T.Shen or Codonopsis tangshen Oliv. Root
 Ephedrae Herba Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C.A.Mey. or Ephedra equisetina Bunge Aerial parts Ephedrae Herba Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C.A. Mey. or Ephedra equisetina Bge. Herbaceous stem
 Fraxini Chinensis Cortex Fraxinus chinensis subsp. rhynchophylla (Hance) A.E.Murray (syn. Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance) Branch or trunk bark Fraxini Cortex Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance, Fraxinus chinensis Roxb, Fraxinus szaboana Lingelsh. or Fraxinus stylosa Lingelsh. Branch or stem bark
 Magnoliae Biondii Flos Immaturus Magnolia biondii Pamp. (syn. Yulania biondii (Pamp.) D.L.Fu) Flower bud Magnoliae Flos Magnolia biondii Pamp., Magnolia denudata Desr. or Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. Flower bud
 Magnoliae officinalis cortex Magnolia officinalis Rehder. et E.H. Wilson. Stem and branch bark Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. or Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. var. biloba Rehd. et Wils. Stem bark
 Magnoliae officinalis flos Magnolia officinalis Rehder et E.H. Wilson. Unopened flower Magnoliae Officinalis Flos Magnolia officinalis Reld. et Wils. or Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. var. biloba Rehd. et Wils. Flower bud
 Notoginseng Radix Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H.Chen [Panax pseudoginseng var. notoginseng (Burkill) G.Hoo and C.L.Tseng] Root Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen Root and rhizome
 Piperis Longi Fructus Piper longum L. or Piper retrofractum Vahl (syn. P. chaba Hunter and P. officinarum (Miq.) C. DC.) or a mixture of both species Ripe or nearly ripe fruiting spikes Piperis Longi Fructus Piper longum L. Ripe or nearly ripe fruit-spike
 Sanguisorbae Radix Sanguisorba officinalis L. Underground parts Sanguisorbae Radix Sanguisorba officinalis L. or Sanguisorba officinalis L. var. longifolia (Bert.) Yu et Li Root
 Uncariae Rhynchophyllae Ramulus cum Uncis Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil. Branch or stem with hooks Uncariae Ramulus cum Uncis Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks., Uncaria macrophylla Wall., Uncaria hirsuta Havil., Uncaria sinensis (Oliv.) Havil., Uncaria sessilifructus Roxb. Hook-bearing branch
 Zanthoxyli Bungeani Pericarpium Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Pericarp of the ripe fruit Zanthoxyli Pericarpium Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. or Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Pericarp of the ripe fruit
Other herbal drugs in both EP and ChP
 Belladonnae Folium Atropa belladonna L. Leaf and flowering tops Belladonnae Herba Atropa belladonna L. Herb
 Centellae Asiaticae Herba Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Aerial parts Centellae Herba Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Herb
 Chelidonii Herba Chelidonium majus L. Flowering aerial parts Chelidonii Herba Chelidonium majus L. Herb
 Eleutherococci Radix Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Maxim. Underground organs Acanthopanacis Senticosi Radix et Rhizoma seu Caulis Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms Root, rhizome or stem
 Ginseng Radix Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Root Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Root and rhizome
 Hyperici Herba Hypericum perforatum L. Flowering tops Hyperici Perforati Herba Hypericum perforatum L. Flowering aerial parts
 Liquiritiae Radix Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and/or Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. and/or Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Root and stolons Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Root and rhizome
 Polygalae Radix Polygala senega L. or Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Root and/or root crown Polygalae Radix Polygala tenuifolia Willd. or Polygala sibirica L. Root
 Polygoni Avicularis Herba Polygonum aviculare L. s.l. Flowering aerial parts Polygoni Avicularis Herba Polygonum aviculare L. Aerial parts
 Rhei Radix Rheum palmatum L. or Rheum officinale Baillon or hybrids of these two species or of a mixture Underground parts Rhei Radix et Rhizoma Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf., or Rheum officinale Baill. Root and rhizome
 Taraxaci Officinalis Herba cum Radice Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. Aerial and underground parts Taraxaci Herba Taraxacum mongolicum Hand. -Mazz., Taraxacum borealisinense Kitam. or several other species of the same genus Herb