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Table 4 Comparison of herbal drugs with different methods for “Assay” in European Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopoeia

From: Quality standard of traditional Chinese medicines: comparison between European Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopoeia and recent advances

European Pharmacopoeia Chinese Pharmacopoeia
Latin Name Method Limit Latin name Method Limit
Traditional Chinese medicines in both EP and ChP
 Angelicae Sinensis Radix LC trans-Ferulic acid (≥ 0.050%) Angelicae Sinensis Radix SD
HPLC
Essential oil (≥ 0.4%)
Ferulic acid (≥ 0.050%)
 Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma SD Essential oil (≥ 14 mL/kg) Atractylodis Rhizoma HPLC Atractylodin (≥ 0.30%)
 Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma SD Essential oil (≥ 9 mL/kg) Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Not included  
 Bistortae Rhizoma UV–Vis Tannins (≥ 3.0%, expressed as pyrogallol) Bistortae Rhizoma HPLC Gallic acid (≥ 0.12%)
 Carthami Flos UV–Vis Total flavonoids (≥ 1.0%, expressed as hyperoside) Carthami Flos HPLC Hydroxysafflor yellow A (≥ 1.0%), kaempferol (≥ 0.050%)
 Clematidis Armandii Caulis LC Oleanolic acid (≥ 0.30%) Clematidis Armandii Caulis Not included  
 Houttuyniae Herba LC Qquercitrin (≥ 0.10%) Houttuyniae Herba Not included  
 Ligustici Chuanxiong Rhizoma SD Essential oil (≥ 3.5 mL/kg) Chuanxiong Rhizoma HPLC Ferulic acid (≥ 0.10%)
 Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix SD Essential oil (≥ 5.0 mL/kg) Ligustici Rhizoma et Radix HPLC Ferulic acid (≥ 0.050%)
 Lycii Fructus Not included   Lycii Fructus UV–Vis
HPLC
Polysaccharide (≥ 1.8%, expressed as glucose)
Betaine (≥ 0.50%)
 Lycopi Herba LC Rosmarinic acid (≥ 0.15%) Lycopi Herba Not included  
 Piperis Fructus SD
LC
Essential oil (≥ 25 mL/kg)
Piperine (≥ 3.0%)
Piperis Fructus HPLC Piperine (≥ 3.3%)
 Piperis Longi Fructus SD
LC
Essential oil (≥ 6.0 mL/kg)
Piperine (≥ 3.0%)
Piperis Longi Fructus HPLC Piperine (≥ 2.5%)
 Sanguisorbae Radix UV–Vis Tannins (≥ 5.0%, expressed as pyrogallol) Sanguisorbae Radix UV–Vis
HPLC
Tanninoids (≥ 8.0%, expressed as gallic acid)
Gallic acid (≥ 1.0%)
 Uncariae Rhynchophyllae Ramulus cum Uncis LC Total alkaloids (≥ 0.2%, expressed as isorhynchophylline) Uncariae Ramulus cum Uncis Not included  
Other herbal drugs in both EP and ChP
 Aloe Barbadensis UV–Vis Hydroxyanthracene derivatives (≥ 28.0%, expressed as barbaloin) Aloe HPLC Barbaloin (≥ 16.0%)
 Aloe Capensis UV–Vis Hydroxyanthracene derivatives (≥ 18.0%, expressed as barbaloin) Aloe HPLC Barbaloin (≥ 6.0%)
 Benzoe Tonkinensis Titration Total acids (35.0%-55.0%, expressed as benzoic acid) Benzoinum HPLC Total balsamic acid (≥ 27.0%, expressed as benzoic acid)
 Caryophylli Flos SD Essential oil (≥ 150 mL/kg) Caryophylli Flos GC Eugenol (≥ 11.0%)
 Chelidonii Herba UV–Vis Total alkaloids (≥ 0.6%, expressed as chelidonine) Chelidonii Herba HPLC Chelerythrine (≥ 0.020%)
 Curcumae Longae Rhizoma SD
UV–Vis
Essential oil (≥ 25 mL/kg)
Dicinnamoyl methane derivatives (≥ 2.0%, expressed as curcumin)
Curcumae Longae Rhizoma SD
HPLC
Essential oil (≥ 7.0%)
Curcumin (≥ 1.0%)
 Hyperici Herba UV–Vis Total hypericins (≥ 0.08%, expressed as hypericin) Hyperici Perforati Herba HPLC Hyperoside (≥ 0.10%)
 Lini Semen Not included   Lini Semen GC Sum of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid (≥ 13.0%)
 Myrrha Not included   Myrrha SD Essential oil (≥ 4.0% for natura myrrh, ≥ 2.0% for colloidal myrrh)
 Polygalae Radix Not included   Polygalae Radix HPLC Tenuifolin (≥ 2.0%), polygalaxanthone III (≥ 0.15%), 3,6′-disinapoyl sucrose (≥ 0.50%)
 Polygoni Avicularis Herba UV–Vis Flavonoids (≥ 0.30%, expressed as hyperoside) Polygoni Avicularis Herba HPLC Myricitrin (≥ 0.030%)
 Rhei Radix UV–Vis Hydroxyanthracene derivatives (≥ 2.2%, expressed as rhein) Rhei Radix et Rhizoma HPLC Total anthraquinone (≥ 1.5%, hydrolysis and expressed as sum of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion), free anthraquinone: sum of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion (≥ 0.20%)
 Taraxaci Officinalis Herba cum Radice Not included   Taraxaci Herba HPLC Cichoric acid (≥ 0.45%)
 Trigonellae Foenugraeci Semen Not included   Trigonellae Semen HPLC Trigonelline (≥ 0.45%)
 Zingiberis Rhizoma SD Essential oil (≥ 15 mL/kg) Zingiberis Rhizoma SD
HPLC
Essential oil (≥ 0.8%)
6-Gingerol (≥ 0.60%)
  1. GC gas chromatography, HPLC high performance liquid chromatography, LC liquid chromatography, SD steam distillation, UV–Vis ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy