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Table 1 The main biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease

From: Traditional Chinese medicine for anti-Alzheimer’s disease: berberine and evodiamine from Evodia rutaecarpa

Biomarker Change in AD compared with non-AD Application References
Aβ42a Decreased in CSF and plasma Used clinically especially in early stage [52]
Aβ40 Both Aβ40 alone and the ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40 decreased in CSF and plasma The ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40 used in research [53]
Aβ38 Both Aβ38 alone and the ratio of Aβ42/Aβ38 decreased in CSF and plasma The ratio of Aβ42/Aβ38 used in research [54]
T-taua Increased in CSF and plasma T-tau used in clinic and the ratio of T-tau/Aβ42 used in research [55]
P-taua Increased in CSF and plasma P-tau used in clinic and the ratio of P-tau/Aβ42 used in research [56]
BACE1 Increased in CSF and plasma Used widely in research [57]
hFABP Increased in CSF Used widely in research [58]
TREM2 Increased in CSF TREM2 mRNA increased in blood Used widely in research [59]
YKL-40 Increased in CSF Used widely in research [60]
SNAP-25 Increased in CSF Used widely in research [61]
TDP-43 Increased in CSF and plasma Used widely in research [62]
VILIP-1 Increased insignificantly in CSF Used in disease progression research [63]
NF-L Increased in CSF Used widely in research [64]
Neurogranin Increased in CSF Neurogranin and N/BACE1 ratio used in research [65, 66]
AD7c-NTP Increased in urine Rarely used in research [49, 50, 67]
24S-OH-Chol Increased in plasma Used widely in research [68]
AAT Increased in plasma Used widely in research [69]
F2-isoprostanes Increased in CSF Used in disease progression research [70]
  1. aRepresents application in clinic