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Table 3 Different categories of alkaloids in extraction methods and neurodegenerative diseases

From: Traditional Chinese medicine for anti-Alzheimer’s disease: berberine and evodiamine from Evodia rutaecarpa

Category Example Extraction method Pharmacological mechanism in AD References
Piperidine alkaloids Piperine Methanol extraction Reduce GSH, MDA [74]
Isoquinoline alkaloid BBR Water decoction Inhibits AChE, BChE activity and β-secretase [75]
Indole alkaloids Evo Hot water reflux extraction Inhibits AChE [76]
Terpenoids alkaloids Voacangine 90% ethanol reflux extraction Inhibits AChE [77]
Steroidal alkaloids Conessine 90% ethanol extraction Inhibits AChE and the activation of NF-κB [78]
Corynoxine 70% ethanol reflux extraction Reduce Ca2+ overload and tau protein hyperphosphorylation [79]
Other alkaloids Caffeine Ethanol extraction Reduce caspase-3 and β-secretase [80]
Isorhynchophylline 70% ethanol reflux extraction Down-regulate GSK-3β activity and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway [79, 81, 82]