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Table 1 The effective doses for the experiment on anti-OA activities of the herbal compounds

From: Recent advance in treatment of osteoarthritis by bioactive components from herbal medicine

No. Herbal compounds In vivo in Vitro
1 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside 10–50 mg/kg (rat) [60] 10–400 μg/ml (chondrocyte) [60]
2 Acetylshikonin 5 mg/kg (rat) [86] 3 μM (chondrocyte) [86]
3 Anemonin 2 mg/kg (mouse) [49] 10 μM (chondrocyte) [49]
    10 μM (cartilage explant) [49]
4 Arasaponin R1   125 mg/l (chondrocyte) [41]
5 Artesunate 25–300 mg/kg (rat) [57, 100]  
6 Astragaloside IV   25–500 mmol/l (chondrocyte) [52, 81, 90]
    50 µg/ml (chondrocyte) [73]
7 Berberine 10–50 mg/kg (rat) [17] 20–100 μM (OA synovial fibroblasts) [17]
   10––200 μM/50 μl (rat) [67, 68] 25–100 μM (chondrocyte) [67,68,69]
   7–28 μg/kg (rat) [69] 25–100 μM (cartilage explant) [68]
8 Butein 20 mg/kg (mouse) [46] 10–50 μM (chondrocyte) [46]
9 Celastrol 1 mg/kg (rat) [84] 0.1–1 μM (chondrocyte) [54]
10 Cinnamophilin   5–30 μM (SW1353 cell) [30]
11 Compound K   0.01–10 μM (MC3T3-E1 cell) [37]
12 Coptisine   2.5-10 μg/ml (chondrocyte) [44]
13 Crocin 5–100 μM/0.3 ml (rabbit) [43] 50–100 μM (chondrocyte) [43]
   30 mg/kg (rat) [110]  
14 Cryptotanshinone 10 mg/kg (mouse) [29] 5–20 μM (chondrocyte) [29]
15 Curcumin 50 μM (mouse) [15] 10 μM (THP-1 cell) [15]
   50–100 mg/kg (mouse) [27, 65, 66] 50–100 μM (chondrocyte) [27, 28]
   200 mg/kg (rat) [96] 40 μM (synoviocyte) [97]
16 Emodin 5–25 μM/50 µl (rat) [39] 5–30 µg/ml (chondrocyte) [38, 39]
17 Ferulic acid   40 μM (chondrocyte) [55]
18 Gastrodin 100 μg/kg (rat) [51] 10–50 μM (chondrocyte) [51]
19 Geniposide 40 mg/kg (rabbit) [31] 80 μg/ml (chondrocyte) [31]
20 Genistein 0.3–0.5 mg/kg (rabbit) [58]  
21 Ginsenoside Rb1 80 μM/0.3 ml (rat) [76] 20–80 μM (SW1353 cell) [76]
   300 μM/200 μl (rat) [87]  
22 Ginsenoside Rg5 10–15 mg/kg (rat) [74]  
23 Halofuginone 0.2–2.5 mg/kg (mouse) [20, 82, 91]  
24 Harpagoside   300 μg/ml (chondrocyte) [32]
25 Honokiol   2.5–10 μM (chondrocyte) [50]
26 Icariin 10–40 ng/ml (rat) [9] 20 μM (SW1353 cell) [16, 79]
   20 μM (rat) [16] 12.5 mg/l (chondrocyte) [41]
   1–6 g/kg (rabbit) [40] 12 μg/ml (SW1353 cell) [92]
   10–25 mg/kg (mouse) [78, 108] 0.5–1 μM (OA fibroblast-like synoviocyte) [95]
27 Isofraxidin 20 mg/kg (mouse) [34] 1–50 μM (chondrocyte) [33, 34]
28 Kaempferol   25–100 µM (chondrocyte) [47]
29 Licochalcone A   5–20 µM (chondrocyte) [36]
30 Magnoflorine 50 ng/2 μl (pig) [23] 25 μg/ml (MC3T3-E1 cell) [23]
31 Naringin 100 mg/kg (mouse) [42] 5 µM (chondrocyte) [42]
   5–10 mg/kg (rat) [106]  
32 Paeonol 20 mg/kg (rat) [56] 50 µM (chondrocyte) [56]
   0.2–0.8 mg/kg (rabbit) [71]  
33 Piperine   10–100 μg/ml (chondrocyte) [45]
34 Psoralen 1 mg/kg (rat) [22] 10 µM (chondrocyte) [22]
    10 µM (synoviocyte) [22]
    10−6 mol/l (chondrocyte) [75]
35 Puerarin 25–50 mg/kg (mouse) [53] 50 nM (chondrocyte) [53]
   30–200 mg/kg (rat) [83, 88]  
36 Quercetin 50–100 mg/kg (rat) [21, 84] 25 μM (chondrocyte) [21]
   25 mg/kg (rabbit) [98]  
37 Resveratrol 45 mg/kg (mouse) [12, 25] 50 μM (SW1353 cell) [12]
   10–50 μM/kg (rabbit) [14, 61] 10–100 μM (chondrocyte) [24, 26, 62]
   30–120 mg/kg (rabbit) [64, 109] 1–5 μM (peripheral blood mononuclear cell) [63]
   10–100 μg/8 μl (mouse) [77]  
38 Shikonin 10 mg/kg (rat) [35] 50 μM (chondrocyte) [86]
39 Sinomenine 2 mg/kg (rabbit) [99] 10–250 μM (chondrocyte) [72]
   5 mg/0.2 ml (rabbit) [102] 10–250 μM (cartilage explant) [72]
    0.25 mM (mesenchymal stem cell) [93]
40 Tectorigenin 0.75–1.5 μg/kg (rat) [48] 50–100 μM (chondrocyte) [48]
41 Tetramethylpyrazine 30–100 mg/kg (rat) [19, 89] 0.5–200 μM (chondrocyte) [13, 70]
   2.1 mg/0.1 ml (rat) [80] 50–200 μM (cartilage explant) [70]
42 Theaflavin-3,3′-digallate   25–75 μg/ml (chondrocyte) [59]
43 Triptolide 0.35 μg (mouse) [107] 20 ng/ml (THP-1 cell) [107]