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Table 1 Solubility of some TCM active components in water and ethanol

From: Research progress on the ethanol precipitation process of traditional Chinese medicine

Component category Active component Solubility in water Solubility in ethanol Unit of solubility Temperature/ °C References
Phenolic acids Rosmarinic acid 1.35 × 10−2 2.68 × 10−1 mol/mol 20 [11]
Gallic acid 1.07 23.7 g/100 g 25 [12]
Gentisic acid 2.20 45.5 g/100 g 25 [12]
Phenols 2-Naphthol 0.00 2.49 × 10−1 mol/mol 20 [13]
Catechol 7.52 × 10−2 3.57 × 10−1 mol/mol 20 [13]
Hydroquinone 1.02 × 10−2 1.88 × 10−1 mol/mol 20 [13]
Curcumin 2.15 × 10−8 6.62 × 10−4 mol/mol 20 [14]
trans-Resveratrol 2.90 × 10−6 1.56 × 10−2 mol/mol 20 [15]
Flavonoids Apigenin 7.00 × 10−7 2.44 × 10−4 mol/mol 15 [16]
Baicalein 6.63 × 10−6 1.04 × 10−3 mol/mol 20 [17]
Chrysin 1.26 × 10−5 6.89 × 10−3 mol/mol 20 [18]
Genistein 5.30 × 10−6 3.74 × 10−2 mol/L 25 [19]
Luteolin 1.75 × 10−6 1.88 × 10−3 mol/mol 25 [20]
Hesperetin 2.40 × 10−6 7.30 × 10−2 mol/L 20 [21]
Hesperidin 1.42 × 10−7 3.08 × 10−5 mol/mol 20 [22]
Naringenin 6.62 × 10−7 9.20 × 10−3 mol/mol 20 [23]
Naringin 9.76 × 10−7 3.98 × 10−5 mol/mol 20 [24]
Daidzin 4.10 × 10−6 3.97 × 10−4 mol/mol 20 [25]
Daidzein 6.08 × 10−8 2.70 × 10−4 mol/mol 20 [26]
Alkaloids Piperine 1.07 × 10−5 8.99 × 10−3 mol/mol 25 [27]
Coumarins Osthole 4.86 × 10−7 1.75 × 10−2 mol/mol 20 [28]
Isoimperatorin 7.42 × 10−7 3.77 × 10−3 mol/mol 20 [29]