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Table 3 The experimental design, optimization objective, and critical factors of the EPP

From: Research progress on the ethanol precipitation process of traditional Chinese medicine

Medicinal materials or compound preparations Experimental design Optimization objective Critical factors References
Danshen Plackett–Burman design, Box–Behnken design Highest protocatechualdehyde content ρ, pH value of EP solution [63]
Danshen Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of impurity removal and retention rate of total salvianolic acids ρ, Ce, ethanol flowrate [64]
Danshen Central composite design The highest purity of danshensu WCc, Ce, DE [65]
Cinobufacini extract Single factor design, orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of cinobufacini retention, impurity removal rate and cinobufacini purity Φ, ρ, Ce, T [66]
Kuanxin oral liquid Orthogonal design Low dry extract rate or high danshensu content ρ, Φ [67]
Danshen Fractional factorial design, Box–Behnken design The highest removal of saccharides SCc, DE, T, hydrochloric acid content [68]
Danhong injection Fractional factorial design Not optimized WCc, Ce, DE [69]
Danhong Injection Box–Behnken design Content of five active components such as danshensu and total solids were within the control range WCc, Ce, DE [70]
Danshen Box–Behnken design Not optimized ρ, DE, T [71]
Schisandrae Chinensis fructus Central composite design Not optimized DE, Ce [72]
Guanxinning injection Box–Behnken design Constructed a satisfaction function with the retention rate of active components such as danshensu and total solids removal rate to maximize the value SCc, DE, T [73]
Danhong injection Central composite design Retention rate and total solids removal rate of danshensu and other active components meet the standards WCc, Ce, DE, T [74]
Qingmai granules Orthogonal design High dry extract rate or high diosgenin content ρ, Φ [75]
Gardeniae FRUCTUS Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of peak area of geniposide and total peak areas of fourteen chemical components ρ [76]
Hemorrhoid fumigants Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of total alkaloid content and dry extract rate Φ [77]
Fermentative fluid of Cordyceps Orthogonal design The highest extracellular polysaccharides content DE [78]
Safflower injection Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of total flavonoid loss rate and dry extract rate t [79]
Changkang granules Single factor design The highest comprehensive score of impurity removal rate and content of four active components such as hypericin ρ, Φ [46]
Ephedran Single factor design, central composite design The highest polysaccharide yield Cc, Φ [80]
Lanshen lipid-lowering prescription Orthogonal design High ratio of total saponin content to dry extract rate t [81]
Fufang Shenqi soft capsules Orthogonal design High total polysaccharide content and low dry extract rate ρ, Φ [82]
Dangshen Plackett–Burman design, Box–Behnken design Total flavonoid recovery, dry matter removal, and pigment removal meet the standards SCc, Ce, DE [83]
Liuwei Dihuang decoction Plackett–Burman design, Box–Behnken design The highest transfer rates of morroniside, loganin, and paeoniflorin ρ, Φ, t, SS, centrifuge or not [84]
Trillium tschonoskii maxim Single factor design, orthogonal design The highest polysaccharide yield Φ [85]
Liuwei Dihuang decoction metabolized by photosynthetic bacteria Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of paeonol content, polysaccharide content, and dry extract rate Cc [86]
Qiguiyin formula Single factor design The highest comprehensive score of astragaloside content, chlorogenic acid content, and dry extract rate Cc, Φ [87]
Lonicerae Japonicae and Artemisiae Annuae Herba in reducing injection Single factor design, Box–Behnken design Constructed a satisfaction function based on a comprehensive score of the transfer rate of five components such as neochlorogenic acid and solid content to maximize the value ρ, temperature before EP, T [88]
Bishuang Paidu granules Single factor design The retention rate of baicalin and decrement of solid matter were high Φ [89]
Herba Sarcandrae Single factor design, orthogonal design The highest transfer rate of tannin Stirring time, T [90]
Zizyphus jujube cv. Dongzao Orthogonal design The highest polysaccharide yield CR, DE [91]
Zhenjing Xiehuo granules Orthogonal design The dry extract rate, liquiritin content, and salvianolic acid B content were highest Φ [92]
Xuanbi Antong formula Orthogonal design The highest content of five components such as salvianolic acid B and dry extract content No significant factor [93]
Meretrix meretrix Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of yield and mass fraction of water-soluble polysaccharide CR, Φ [94]
Guben Bushen oral liquid Orthogonal design The highest polysaccharides yield Φ [95]
Tongfengxiao granules Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of the content of berberine hydrochloride and salvianolic acid B t [96]
Zhimahuang group in Shufeng Dingchuan granules Box–Behnken design The highest comprehensive score of transfer rates of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, amygdalin, and solid content ρ, Φ, t [97]
Shenqi compound recipe Box–Behnken design Constructed a satisfaction function with polysaccharide content and dry extract rate to maximize the value Φ, t, CR [98]
Wubie granules intermediates Single factor design Transfer rates of stilbene glucoside, asperosaponin VI, and solid content were high ρ, Φ, t [42]
Qifang Bimin granules Single factor design The highest comprehensive score of extraction rates of astragaloside IV and paeoniflorin ρ [99]
Bazhen granules Orthogonal design Dry extract rate and paeoniflorin content were high Φ, t [100]
Qianyang Yuyin granules Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of stilbene glycoside content and dry extract rate No significant factor [101]
Biqiu granules Plackett–Burman design, Box–Behnken design The highest comprehensive score of caffeic acid content and rosmarinic acid content ρ, Φ, t [102]
Chailing Hugan granules Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of dry extract rate, total flavonoids content, and polysaccharides content t, Cc [103]
Dendrobium Candidum eye drops Orthogonal design The highest crude polysaccharides content No significant factor [104]
Ganmaoling granules Single factor design The highest dry extract rate Ce, ρ, Φ, t [105]
Majiezhike granules Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of retention rate of ephedrine hydrochloride and decrement of solid matter t [106]
Shouwu Granula Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of stilbenes content and dry extract rate No significant factor [107]
Lidan Paidu prescription Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of extraction rate and content of chlorogenic acid, jasminoidin, and salvianolic acid B ρ [51]
Qingyan Shuanghou granules Box–Behnken design Constructed a satisfaction function with extraction rate and chlorogenic acid extraction yield to maximize the value ρ, Φ, t [108]
Liqifuwei oral liquid Orthogonal design The highest of anthraquinone transfer and dry extract rate ρ, Φ [109]
Tong Fengqing cataplasm Orthogonal design The highest of total retention of matrine and oxymatrine ρ [110]
Dingtongning granule Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of dry extract rate and transfer rates of paeoniflorin and ferulic acid ρ, Φ [45]
Zhidanhuayu formula Single factor design The highest comprehensive score of dry extract rate, paeoniflorin content, and astragaloside IV content ρ, Φ [111]
Chaixiong mixture Single factor design The highest comprehensive score of total saikosaponin content and impurity removal rate ρ, Φ [112]
Poria Cocos Single factor design, orthogonal design The highest yield of water-insoluble polysaccharide CR, Φ, t [113]
Dibutyl particles Orthogonal design The highest phenanthrene content and dry extract rate Cc, Φ [114]
Xuanfei Zhike granule Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of hesperidin content, tectoridin content, and dry extract rate No significant factor [115]
Compound Cornu Cervi Degelatinatum Orthogonal design The highest content of monotropein, loganin and chiratin, and dry extract rate Φ [116]
Crataegus pinnatifida Plackett–Burman design, Box–Behnken design The highest retention rate of total flavonoids SS, DE, ρ [117]
Qizhi Yifei granules Single factor design The high extraction rate of astragaloside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucose-7-O-β-D-gentian diglucoside and dry extract rate ρ, Φ [118]
Qingyan oral liquid Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of the transfer rate of irisflorentin and total glycosides Φ [119]
Yinchen mixture Single factor design, central composite design Constructed a satisfaction function with transfer rates of geniposide and solid removal rate to maximize the value ρ, Φ, SS [120]
Shiwei Ehuang granules Orthogonal design The highest astragaloside A content ρ, Φ [121]
Webikang granules Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of hesperidin content and dry extract rate No significant factor [122]
Panax Ginseng and Pueraria Lobata concentrated decoction Box–Behnken design The high precipitation rate and total saponin content Φ, t [123]
Compound lipid-lowering Sustained-release tablets Single factor design, orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of extraction rates of salvianolic acid B, nuciferine and total flavonoids ρ [124]
Sophora flavescens Box–Behnken design The highest comprehensive score of total alkaloid extraction rate and dry extract rate Φ [125]
A Formula including radix Puerariae, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Desertliving Cistanche, and Pinellia tuber Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of the content of paeoniflorin, puerarin, echinacoside, and dry extract content ρ [126]
Kangzhi Suppository Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of berberine hydrochloride content and paste-forming rate ρ [127]
Fufang Roucongrong Mixture Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of retention amounts of verbascoside, lobetyolin, and salvianolic acid B SS, ρ, Φ [128]
Fufang Shuanghua oral liquid Orthogonal design The highest comprehensive score of (R, S)-goitrin retention rate, precipitation rate of protein/polysaccharide/tannin, and solid content t [129]
Astragali radix Plackett–Burman design Not optimized Φ, T [130]