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Table 2 The main volatile compounds in different parts of A. villosum samples

From: Comparison of volatile compounds in different parts of fresh Amomum villosum Lour. from different geographical areas using cryogenic grinding combined HS–SPME–GC–MS

Codes RT (min) Compounds Fruits Roots Leaves Stems
Comparative indexa Relative content (%)b Comparative index Relative content (%) Comparative index Relative content (%) Comparative index Relative content (%)
1 5.26 (-)-β-Pinene 18.64c (8.96–29.96)d 1.49e (0.72–2.79)f 6.75 (2.61–13.10) 0.87 (0.33–1.55) 51.18 (19.99–100.00) 7.41 (2.66–17.96) 17.52 (5.39–42.82) 3.00 (1.88–4.71)
2 6.12 d-Limonene 21.41 (11.16–35.39) 1.49 (0.71–2.87) 18.60 (7.31–33.11) 2.05 (0.81–4.67) 47.97 (21.88–73.28) 5.87 (2.64–8.60) 53.19 (24.83–100.00) 8.62 (4.82–13.12)
3 6.48 Trans-β-ocimene 61.39 (24.13–100.00) 0.38 (0.16–0.69)
4 6.79 γ 66.32 (46.84–100.00) 1.67 (0.88–2.76)
5 8.65 Terpinolene 53.22 (21.67–100.00) 0.79 (0.23–1.58)
6 9.10 Camphor 56.8 (29.13–100.00) 3.91 (2.44–6.32) 6.68 (2.65–14.75) 0.77 (0.21–1.74) 48.92 (18.29–89.18) 8.08 (4.97–11.59)
7 9.69 Borneol 62.87 (34.65–100.00) 1.06 (0.54–1.72)
8 9.99 4-Terpineol 29.24 (17.60–46.87) 1.13 (0.67–90) 64.35 (34.96–100.00) 3.99 (1.08–6.49)
9 10.37 Terpineol 22.47 (13.15–44.24) 0.73 (0.39–1.61) 61.21 (34.34–100.00) 3.07 (1.74–5.23)
10 11.23 Fenchyl acetate 60.23 (36.83–100.00) 0.75 (0.55–1.24) 43.2 (14.71–74.93) 0.82 (0.49–1.20)
11 13.30 Bornyl acetate 70.76 (44.10–100.00) 10.53(8.14–14.27) 2.79 (0.77–8.38) 0.66 (0.21–2.31)
12 13.57 Methyl 2,5-octadecadiynoate 7.14 (2.96–16.60) 0.15 (0.07–0.40) 26.05 (8.13–48.86) 0.93 (0.24–1.77) 54.9 (24.02–100.00) 2.19 (0.93–5.55) 19.13 (5.14–41.33) 1.13 (0.24–2.90)
13 14.45 Myrtenyl acetate 25.02 (14.68–47.02) 0.26 (0.14–0.48) 55.52 (21.41–100.00) 0.65 (0.29–1.30)
14 14.86 Elixene 50.26 (26.48–100.00) 4.20 (2.48–6.05)
15 15.30 δ-Elemene 51.81 (25.62–100.00) 0.42 (0.24–0.71)
16 17.55 Naphthalene, 1,2,3,4,4a,7-Hexahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)- 72.73 (48.94–100.00) 0.94 (0.73–1.05)
17 18.22 Caryophyllene 38.73 (25.26–55.42) 8.70 (6.64–10.99) 24.15 (15.12–35.60) 8.67 (5.53–11.27) 70.29 (40.21–100.00) 27.67 (21.49–35.15) 1.85 (0.74–4.15) 1.00 (0.45–1.94)
18 19.08 Aromadendrene 52.71 (33.94–100.00) 1.62 (1.06–2.28)
19 19.49 Epi-β-Santalene 64.45 (38.13–100.00) 1.23 (0.86–1.72) 15.75 (9.48–26.90) 0.52 (0.37–0.74)
20 19.79 α-Caryophyllene 25.50 (16.51–38.79) 0.78 (0.60–1.27) 74.81 (41.95–100.00) 4.03 (3.06–5.88)
21 20.01 (Z)-β-Farnesene 80.18 (57.95–100.00) 3.53 (3.01–3.92)   
22 20.18 Allo-aromadendrene 17.07 (7.12–36.64) 0.94 (0.35–2.23) 48.74 (28.44–69.09) 4.21 (2.86–5.87) 37.53 (15.95–69.46) 3.46 (2.23–4.68) 61.25 (25.84–100.00) 8.09 (5.70–10.83)
23 20.89 Unknown 23.66 (10.14–44.43) 0.94 (0.37–1.61) 59.46 (35.67–100.00) 3.74 (2.67–4.96) 21.18 (13.98–45.33) 1.48 (1.03–2.15) 19.89 (3.67–54.19) 1.79 (0.58–6.67)
24 21.26 γ-Muurolene 73.6 (48.74–100.00) 2.00 (1.48–2.27)  
25 21.46 α-Curcumene 25.37 (18.83–34.15) 2.30 (1.70–3.04) 61.83 (33.69–100.00) 9.76 (6.52–12.77) 41.76 (15.22–83.16) 8.73 (5.11–11.81)
26 21.59 Chamigrene 55.5 (37.63–100.00) 27.88 (22.26–36.38)
27 22.22 α-Amorphene 69.06 (41.43–100.00) 1.98 (1.07–2.91)
28 22.27 β-Guaiene 22.05 (10.59–35.77) 2.29 (0.99–3.47) 59.75 (37.91–100.00) 9.85 (7.27–13.71) 28.87 (3.58–61.43) 6.79 (1.20–9.99)
29 22.65 Cis-α-bisabolene 78.01 (53.60–100.00) 1.31 (0.91–1.87)
30 23.14 β-Bisabolene 77.31 (54.49–100.00) 11.50 (9.00–14.05) 26.6 (17.82–50.60) 6.26 (3.97–10.97) 14.38 (6.28–28.89) 3.62 (2.06–5.04) 10.34 (0.69–53.3) 3.09 (0.45–10.16)
31 23.93 δ-Cadinene 39.71 (27.76–54.46) 3.02 (1.93–3.89) 49.43 (28.41–73.14) 5.94 (3.97–8.28) 40.7 (24.71–74.94) 5.47 (3.00–13.52) 47.06 (6.08–100.00) 8.07 (1.49–10.29)
32 24.51 α-Patchoulene 70.09 (47.42–100.00) 2.10 (1.59–2.92)
33 25.26 Germacrene B 72.06 (48.84–100.00) 1.84 (1.46–2.34)
34 27.08 (E)-nerolidol 63.26 (36.22–100.00) 14.82 (10.14–18.66)
35 27.97 Caryophyllene oxide 18.99 (10.86–36.30) 0.59 (0.34–1.24) 61.34 (40.3–100.00) 3.01 (1.93–4.33) 21.34 (8.18–30.64) 1.15 (0.59–1.72) 35.87 (14.38–85.84) 2.71 (0.96–8.45)
36 32.57 γ-Eudesmol 12.93 (5.27–32.45) 2.17 (0.90–5.49) 52.87 (28.04–100.00) 12.84 (9.42–15.4)
37 32.86 Eremophilene 49.37 (32.64–78.66) 3.98 (2.46–6.07) 51.63 (22.49–100.00) 5.94 (4.25–8.64)
38 33.48 Longifolenaldehyde 35.29 (20.21–58.56) 1.55 (0.66–2.89) 62.82 (26.75–100.00) 2.91 (1.28–6.28)
39 33.90 Cubenol 69.36 (44.6–100.00) 10.04 (7.19–12.99) 6.83 (2.80–15.19) 1.54 (0.84–2.52)
40 34.09 Santalol,cis,α- 74.43 (42.5–100.00) 3.22 (2.13–4.11)
41 34.63 Widdrol 48.86 (15.39–100.00) 0.88 (0.23–2.17)
42 35.07 Acetic acid, 3-hydroxy-6-isopropenyl-4,8a-dimethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-2-yl ester 68.71 (39.22–100.00) 0.58 (0.39–0.79)
43 36.08 4-(2-Acetyl-5,5-dimethylcyclopent-2-enylidene)butan-2-one 57.82 (18.21–100.00) 2.69 (0.63–3.92)
44 36.23 Aristolene epoxide 22.27 (11.54–37.85) 0.65 (0.30–1.19) 27.11 (11.47–52.64) 1.32 (0.42–2.86) 58.48 (27.00–100.00) 3.02 (1.54–6.58)
45 37.20 Nerolidyl acetate 68.47 (37.48–100.00) 0.42 (0.25–0.55)
46 37.46 6-(1-Hydroxymethylvinyl)-4,8a-dimethyl-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-1H-naphthalen-2-one 20.25 (11.91–46.81) 0.37 (0.22–0.94) 67.34 (39.72–100.00) 2.00 (1.13–3.37) 20.22 (13.75–30.53) 0.66 (0.42–1.31) 26.64 (9.35–49.58) 1.23 (0.33–2.84)
47 37.95 Santalol 59.35 (34.97–100.00) 0.13 (0.08–0.22)
48 39.50 Cembrene 19.97 (8.67–34.40) 0.09 (0.05–0.16) 65.38 (44.24–100.00) 0.46 (0.30–0.82) 38.9 (19.09–58.49) 0.31 (0.14–0.52) 15.37 (5.73–35.40) 0.16 (0.03–.31)
Total    77.81 (55.84–100.00) 95.35 (90.86–98.80) 47.95 (35.68–68.76) 93.60 (89.79–98.67) 39.88 (29.49–56.66) 86.00 (81.28–93.78) 32.32 (16.64–57.90) 92.72 (90.33–98.51)
   Chemical classes         
   Monoterpene hydrocarbons 26.87 (14.60–41.69) 3.37 (1.81–6.09) 26.75 (18.39–38.77) 5.38 (3.38–8.63) 59.29 (25.78–100.00) 13.29 (5.60–23.9) 40.70 (17.68–79.34) 11.62 (7.80–16.32)
   Oxygenated monoterpenes 68.75 (42.38–100.00) 15.51 (11.77–19.95) 11.72 (7.00–20.14) 4.30 (2.83–8.45) 1.58 (0.61–2.84) 0.65 (0.29–1.30) 28.69 (14.99–45.09) 15.97 (11.74–22.37)
   Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 70.02 (48.17–95.35) 44.89 (34.4–50.98) 66.34 (48.55–100.00) 67.21 (61.31–73.02) 54.17 (34.12–83.97) 60.34 (52.85–68.94) 28.52 (11.79–59.51) 41.7 (25.26–49.12)
   Oxygenated sesquiterpenes 67.57 (40.51–100.00) 29.81 (21.3–36.02) 16.17 (9.56–20.54) 11.58 (8.22–15.2) 9.91 (5.35–15.28) 7.75 (5.19–14.76) 16.86 (9.09–32.48) 17.66 (12.69–21.5)
   Others 37.19 (19.16–54.55) 1.76 (1.09–2.56) 67.99 (43.35–100.00) 5.13 (4.24–6.52) 46.48 (27.63–85.52) 3.97 (2.32–7.29) 50.38 (21.39–88.52) 5.77 (2.40–10.84)
  1. a The comparative index was calculated as: comparative index (A/SI) = P(A/SI)/P(AMax.)*100; (comparative index (A/SI) was the comparative index of compound A in sample SI; P(A/SI) was the peak area of compound A in sample SI; P(AMax.) was the maximum peak area of compound A in different parts of A. villosum samples)
  2. b Relative content was calculated as: relative content (A/SI) = P(A/SI)/P(SI)*100%; (relative content (A/SI) was the relative content of compound A in sample SI; P(A/SI) was the peak area of compound A in sample SI; P(SI) was the total peak area of detected volatile compounds in sample SI)
  3. c Average comparative index (n = 18)
  4. d Range of comparative index (n = 18)
  5. e Average relative content (n = 18)
  6. f Range of comparative index (n = 18)
  7. All data was presented as average of two determinations, their relative average deviations were less than 5.3%