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Table 2 The pharmacological effects of SB

From: Applications, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, pharmacokinetics, toxicity of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. and its probably potential therapeutic effects on COVID-19: a review

Pharmacological effects Model Mechanism Drugs or components Doses Efficacy Refs.
Anti inflammatory LPS-induced Raw 264.7 cells Inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors Flavonoids 10–100 μg/mL MC = 10 μg/mL [59]
HCT 116 cells Inducing apoptosis; Activating PPARγ to inhibit the activity of NF-κB Baicalein 25–100 μM IC50 = 50 μM [60]
AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer mices 1–10 mg/kg MC = 1 mg/kg
L6 cells Inhibiting the expression of inflammation related proteins Flavonoids 30––150 μg/mL MC = 150 μg/mL [61]
AET II cells Inhibiting the signal pathways of NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-AT 70% ethanol extract 3.125–200 μg/mL MC = 50 μg/mL [62]
ALI rats 2–8 mg/kg MC = 4 mg/kg
Human THP-1 cells Inhibiting the production of TNF-α, IL-1β Ploysaccharides 20–1280 μg/mL IC50 = 40 μg/mL [51]
C57BL/6 mices 50–200 mg/kg IC50 = 100 mg/kg
Antibacterial and antimicrobial T. gondii in Hela cells Inhibiting the propagation of T. gondii Water extract 10 μg/mL Inhibiting rates > 98% [63]
Piglets with diarrhea Changing the composition of intestinal flora Baicalin-Alumium complexes 272 mg/mL Diarrhea rates less than 50% [108]
Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii Inhibiting the propagation of A. baumannii Water extract 7.8125–1000 μg/mL MIC = 128 μg/mL
MBC = 256 μg/mL
P. Acnes in human monocytic Th-1 cells Inhibiting the production of IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β Wogonin 5–30 μM IC50 = 4.9–8.7 μM [65]
Antibacterial and antimicrobial P. acnes Inhibiting the production of IL-8 and IL-1β via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways Wogonin Wogonoside 1.15 mg/g
8.71 mg/g
Inhibition rates > 90% [66]
P. aeruginosa Decreasing the production of exotoxin A; Inhibiting inflammation Baicalin 2–1024 μg/mL MEC > 1024 μg/mL [67]
P. aeruginosa-induced peritoneal infection mouse 100 mg/kg Bacterial counts decreased significantly
Antivirus RSV infect HEp-2 cells Decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration; Significantly reducing H1N1 activity Baicalin 3–30 μM IC50 = 19.9 ± 1.8 μM
CC50 = 370 ± 10 μM
RSV-induced lung injury mice 50–200 mg/kg IC50 = 100 mg/kg
IAV in MDCK cells Inhibiting the leves of IL-6, TNF-α; Improving lung tissue abnormality Flavonoids 2.5–40 μg/mL Inhibiting rates > 65% [69]
IAV in mices 10 mg/mL
Dengue virus in vero cells Inhibiting the propagation of virus Baicalein 0.5–750 μg/mL IC50 = 56.02–77.41 μg/mL [70]
CVB3 in male BALB/c mices Reducing the level of inflammatory factors; Increasing phosphoric acid eIF2 α in pancreas Oroxylin A and wogonoside 50 mg/kg Inhibiting rates > 50% [71]
Antivirus CHIKV in vero, BHK-21 and HEK-293T cells Antivirus directly; Reducing the level of important protein markers of LC3 and Bax Baicalin 3–100 μM EC50 = 14 μM [72]
Antioxidant FeSO4-Cys-induced liver homogenate Inhibiting further development of oxidation process; Producing cytoprotection wogonin-7-O-β-d-ethylglucuronide and wogonoside IC50 = 18.2 and 24.9 μM [73]
H2O2-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells
H2O2-induced HaCaT cells Decreasing comet tail formation; Inhibiting histone γH2AX phosphorylation Ethanol extract 200–1000 μg/mL IC50 = 600 μg/mL [74]
DPPH, ABTS2+ scavenging activity Inhibiting oxidation reaction Polyphends 25–500 μg/mL IC50 = 66.9 ± 0.3 μg/mL [39]
DPPH scavenging activity Inhibiting oxidation reaction; Preventing ROS from damaging cells; Accelerating wound healing Baicalin/F 127 hydrogels Wound healing rates more than 85% and cell activity more than 80% [75]
NIH3T3 cells
Wound tissues
Cardiovascular effects Cerebral ischemial reperfusion rats Improving neuron loss or swelling; Enhancing memory; Reducing MDA level; Increasing Na+–K+–ATPase activity Flavonoids 35–140 mg/kg MC = 35 mg/kg [76]
H9c2 cardiomyoctes Reducing LysoPC-induced cell desth and production of ROS Baicalein 0.1–10 μM IC50 = 0.69 μM [77]
Cardiovascular effects Age-matched male SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto rats Improving the state of intestinal injury, Reducing intestinal permeability and the level of related inflammatory factors Baicalin 100 mg/kg The level of correlation factor is 2–5 times higher than that of model making [78]
Male SD rats, male WKY/Izm and SHRs rats Activating the pathway of NO/cG; Paying the role of vascular relaxation Sanhuangjiedu Decoction 1–100 μg/mL EC50 = 16.2 ± 1.1 and 65.1 ± 5.5 μg/mL (baicalin and baicalein) [79]
Hypoglycemic α-Glucosidase Inhibiting the activity of α-glucosidase 70% Ethanol extract Six flavonoids of α-glucosidase inhibitors were screened out [83]
Male SD rats Regulating the composition of intestinal flora Water extract 6.3 g/kg The perturbation of metabolic spectrum in T2DM rats was significantly improved [84]
α-Glucosidase Regulating peroxisome proliferator receoter actiated Flavonoids 3.34 mg/kg Inhibiting rates > 90% [85]
Neuroprotection γ irradiation-induced rats Resuming the level of cell mRNA and the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NF-κB Wogonin 30 mg/kg No lesions of the polymerized astrocytes [85]
Spinal cord injury rats Reducing peroxides toxicity in nerve cells Water extract 20 mg/kg The pathological changes of damaged neurons were improved obviously [86]
Neuroprotection LPS -induced BV-2 and HT22 cells Inhibiting neuroinflammatory responses Apigetrin 20–100 μM MC = 25 μM [87]
Hippocampal neuroral cells Decreasing the production of PEG2 and NO Wogonin, baicalein, wogonoside and baicalin 10 mg/kg Inhibiting rates are 78.6%, 91.0%, 81.0% and 41.0% [88, 89]
Primary rats cortical cells Inhibition of neurocell death Ethanol extract 1–100 μg/mL IC50 = 35.1 μg/mL [90]
Primary rats cortical cells exposured to potassium cyanide NMDA receptor mediated neuroprotection; Inhibiting lactic dehydrogenase, MDA etc.; Increasing the Na+–K+–ATPase activity Flavonoids 18.98–75.92 μg/mL Inhibiting rates are 25.24–46.69% [91]
Antitumor Mouse orthotopic tumor model and femal C57BL/6 mices Decreasing the expression of cyclin B1 and D1; Inhibit the mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 Baicalein 25–100 μM MC = 100 μM (G1 phase) [92]
MCF-7 Inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential; Downregulating Bcl-2 Methanol extract 100–500 μg/mL MC = 100 μg/mL [93]
B-ALL cell lines Inhibiting cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase Baicalin 4–16 μg/mL MC = 8 μg/mL [96]
AGS cells Inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential; Downregulating PARP Flavonoids 50–400 μg/mL IC50 = 100 μg/mL [94]
Antitumor Lewis lung cacinoma cells Inhibiting the propagation of AGS cells and tumor growth Extract freeze-dried powder 0.125–1 mg/mL IC50 = 0.13 mg/mL [95]
Male C57BL/6 mices 300 mg/kg
Female ICR mices Inhibiting the expression of SHCBP1 Oroxylin A 10–40 mg/kg MC = 10 mg/kg [97]
JB6P + cells 5–20 μM MC = 5 μM
Liver protection HCC cells Inhibiting the metastasis of cancer cells Flavonoids 50–400 μg/mL MC = 100 μg/mL [99]
HCC cells Downregulating the mRNA and proteins expression of CD24 Baicalein 50–100 μg/mL MC = 50 μg/mL [100]
Alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mices Inhibiting the propagation of liver cancer cells; Downregulating the GRP78 expression of endoplasmic reticulum marker Methanol extract 40–160 mg/kg MC = 40 mg/kg [101]
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis cells Downregulating the pathway of NLRP3-GSDMD to inhibit the liver cells death Baicalin 1–64 μM MC = 32 μM [102]
Immunity Far eastern catfish Increasing viability by regulating growth and serum hormone levels Water extract 0.25–5% Viability more than 90% [60]
Srtreptococcus iniae induced periodontitis mices Increasing the level of Th2-type IgG1 Water extract 50 mg/kg After 4 weeks, the effect began to be obvious [104]
Immunity PAVECs Anti H. parasuis; Inhibiting the phosphorylation of FPK, JNK, p38 Baicalin 12.5–100 μg/mL MC = 12.5 μg/mL [105]
Anti-aging d-galactose induced aging rats Regulatiing disorders of amino acid, choline and glucose metabolism 60% Ethanol extract 100–200 mg/kg MC = 100 mg/kg [106]
  d-galactose induced aging rats Regulating the level of MDA, SOD, AGEs 60% Ethanol flower extract 0.4–0.8 g/kg MC = 0.4 g/kg [107]
  Bleomycin-induced senescence in BJ fibroblasts Interrupting IκBζ/C/EBPβ pathway 5,7,2′-Trihydroxyflavone and scutevulin 2-4 mg/kg Inhibitory rates > 90% [108]
Anti-Osteoporosis Primary bone narrow mononuclear cells Inhibition of trabecular bone loss; Decreasing the level of CTX-1, TRAP-5b and IL-6 Tectochrysin 20–100 μmol/L MC = 20 μmol/L [109]
  Female C57BL/6 mices Promoting the proliferation of bone cells and matrix calcification Baicalein and wogonin 0.5–0.6 mg/L and 0.015–0.6 mg/L The effect is equivalent to 0.1 mg/L simvastatin [110]
Anti prostatic hyperplasia Prostatic hyperplasia rats Inhibiting prostate growth; Decreasing the level of serum testosterone and 5α-reductase 30% ethanol extract 100–200 mg/kg MC = 100 mg/kg [113]
Anti-alzheimer MAO enzyme Inhibiting MAO-A and MAO-B Wogonin IC50 = 6.35 and 20.8 μM (A and B) [115]
Anti-melanin The mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 Inhibiting the production of melanin and transport of intracellular melanosome O-methylated flavones 7–70 μg/mL MC = 35 μg/mL [117]
Antipruritic Male ICR and BALB/c mices Inhibiting scratching behavior; Reducing vascular permeability Baicalin, baicalein and oroxylin A 20–50 mg/kg Oroxylin A has the strongest effect [118]