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Table 4 Effects of alkaloids on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN)

From: Effects of alkaloids on peripheral neuropathic pain: a review

Alkaloids Animal/cell Dose mg/kg (route of administration) Effects/mechanisms of action References
behavioral evaluation histopathological
observation
Electrophysiology parameters Biochemical/Molecular parameters/mRNA
Berberine Male Wistar rats 10/20 mg/kg
i.p
8 days
 → Paclitaxel-induced heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia ↑Shrunken and swollen axons with myelin breakdown
 → Axon number
↓MDA and GPx levels in the sciatic nerve tissue
↑GSH and SOD levels and Nrf2 mRNA in the sciatic nerve tissue
[87]
Evodiamine Male Sprague–Dawley rats 5 mg/kg
i.p
3 days
↓Paclitaxel-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity ↑IENFs ↓IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1
↑PGC-1α, UCP2 and SOD2 mRNA in DRG
[78]
Matrine Male ICR mice 15/30/60 mg/kg
i.p
11 days
↓Vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia
 → Motor Coordination
 → SFI
↓The loss of myelinated nerve fibers, part of the axons arranged in irregular swelling, rise in the number of vacuoles ↑Vincristine-induced loss of SNCV and SNAP amplitudes in a dose dependent manner ↑T-AOC, SOD, GSH-Px and TCA activity
↓MDA and MPO
[82]
Bulleyaconitine A Male Sprague–Dawley rats 0.1/0.4/0.8 mg/kg
i.g
↓Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia ↓HFS induced LTP
↓The frequency of sEPSCs and mEPSCs in laminar II neurons
 → The amplitude of sEPSCs and mEPSCs in laminar II neurons
[92]
Corydalis saxicola Bunting total alkaloids Male Sprague–Dawley rats 30/60/120 mg/kg i.g ↓Cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and cold Hyperalgesia ↓Cisplatin-induced vacuoles, neuron shrinkage, disordered satellite cells, and generally decreased Schwann cells ↓Cisplatin-induced pro-inflammation cytokines release in serum and foot supernatant of rats
↓ Cisplatin-induced p-p38 and TRPV1expression in DRG, TG, Spinal Cord and paw
[81]
Levo-corydalmine Male ICR mice
Primary astrocytes
5/10/20 mg/kg
i.g
9 days
3/10/30 μM(in vitro)
Reversed vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia ↓Fluorescence intensity of CXCL1 and p-NF-κB ↓TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1 and NF-κB activation in vivo and vitro [89]
  1. ↑: Enhanced/Increased/Upregulate↓: Attenuate/Downregulate/Decrease/Suppress/Inhibit/Prevent