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Table 5 Effects of alkaloids on sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI)

From: Effects of alkaloids on peripheral neuropathic pain: a review

Alkaloids Animal/cell Dose mg/kg (route of
administration)
Effects/mechanisms of action References
Behavioral evaluation Histopathological
observation
Electrophysiology parameters Biochemical/molecular parameters/mRNA
Isotalatizidine Female C57BL/6 mice
BV2 microglial cells
Primary microglial cells
0.1/0.3/1.0 mg/kg
i.t
25 μM(in vitro)
↓Mechanical
allodynia
↑Fluorescence intensity Dynorphin A in spinal cord ↑p-CREB, p-ERK1/2, dynorphin A in the spinal cord tissue
↑prodynorphin mRNA
[25]
Gelsenicine Male ICR mice 0.8/4/20 mg/kg
s.c
↓Thermal hypersensitivity [26]
Dehydrocrenatidine Male Sprague–Dawley rats
Primary DRG neurons
50/150/250 µg/kg
i.t
↓Mechanical allodynia ↓TTX-S and TTX-R currents in DRG [101]
Matrine Male ICR mice 7.5/15/30 mg/kg
i.p
8 days
↓Mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia
 → Motor coordination
 → Spontaneous locomotor
[95]
Guanfu Base A Male Sprague Dawley rats
HEK293 cells
40 mg/kg
i.p
14 days
↓Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia ↓Co-expression values of P2Y12 and GFAP ↓The expression of P2Y12 mRNA, P2Y12 protein, TNF-α and p-p38 MAPK in L4 –L6 DRGs
↓ADP-induced cAMP concentration in HEK293 cell
[96]
Sinomenine Male Sprague–Dawley rats 10/20/40 mg/kg
i.p
2 weeks
↓Mechanical allodynia
↓Depressive like behavior
↓Locomotor coordination
[97]
Levo-tetrahydropalmatine Male ICR mice 20 nmol
i.p
2 nmol
i.t
↓Percentage withdrawal response frequency
 → Motor coordination
↓pNR1 in spinal dorsal horn [98]
Berberine Male Sprague–Dawley rats 5/10/20 mg/kg
i.p
↓ Mechanical
allodynia and cold allodynia
Berberine does not induce sedation
   ↓MPO, MDA in Sciatic nerve [99]
Brucine Male C57BL/6 mice 10/30 mg/kg ↓Thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia ↓Action potential (AP) firing activity of DRG neurons
↓TTX-r and TTX-s currents
[100]
Isorhynchophylline Adult maleC57BL/6 J mice 5/15/45 mg/kg
i.g
Twice per day for 14 days
↓Tactile allodynia and thermal
 → Motor coordination
↓Depression and anxiety like behavior
↑5-HT, NA
 → 5-HIAA, DA, DOPAC
↓5-HIAA/5-HT ratio, MAO-A
[103]
Oxymatrine Male ICR mice 40/80/160 mg/kg
i.p
↓Mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia ↓ NR2B expression in the superficial dorsal horn ↓GAT-1 in spinal cord
↑GABAARα2
[109]
Oxymatrine Male ICR mice 40/80/160 mg/kg
i.p
↓Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia ↑Immunostaining positive neurons of GABAAa2
↓Immunostaining positive neurons of GAT-1
↓NR2B, p-ERK, p-CREB in spinal cord [115]
Koumine Male Sprague–Dawley rats
Microglial BV2 Microglia
0.28/1.4/7 mg/kg
s.c
7 days
25/50/100/200 μg/ml (in vitro)
↓Mechanical allodynia ↓ The fluorescence density of Iba-1, GFAP and TSPO expression in the spinal cord ↓IL-1β, TNF-α and TSPO in the spinal cord
↓ LPS-induced the protein levels and the mRNA expression of M1 markers (CD86, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) in BV2 cells
[102]
Koumine Male Sprague–Dawley rats 0.28/1.4/7 mg/kg
s.c
twice per day for 7 days
↓Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia ↑ Allopregnanolone
 → pregnenolone
[130]
Koumine Male adult Sprague–Dawley rats 0.28/1.4/7 mg/kg
s.c
twice per day for 7 days
↓Hyperalgesia and allodynia ↑Fluorescence density of 3α‑HSOR in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord (L5–L6) ↑ The level of 3α‑HSOR mRNA and 3α‑HSOR catalytic activity in the spinal cord lumbar region L5–L6 [131]
  1. ↑: Enhanced/Increased/Upregulate↓: Attenuate/Downregulate/Decrease/Suppress/Inhibit/Prevent