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Table 6 Effects of alkaloids on sciatic nerve ligation (SNL) models

From: Effects of alkaloids on peripheral neuropathic pain: a review

Alkaloids Animal/cell Dose mg/kg (route of
administration)
Effects/mechanisms of action Biochemical/molecular parameters/mRNA References
behavioral evaluation histopathological
observation
Electrophysiology parameters
Lappaconitine Male adult Wistar rats
Primary neurons, astrocytes, and microglia
0.3/1/3/10 mg/kg s.c
0.3/1/3/10 μg
i.t
↓Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia →The mRNA expression of dynorphin A, prodynorphin in microglia
↓LPS-induced the increase of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in microglia
[29]
koumine Male adult Sprague–Dawley rats 0.28/1.4/7 mg/kg
s.c
Twice per day for 7 days
↓Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia [130]
Bulleyaconitine A Male Sprague–Dawley rats 0.4 mg/kg
i.g
↓Mechanical and thermal sensitivity ↓Morphine induced-the potentiation of spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses ↓p-PKCγ in SDH [136]
Bullatine A Male adult Swiss mice 0.1/0.3/1/3/10/30 mg/kg
s.c
↓Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia [135]
Bulleyaconitine A Male Sprague–Dawley rats
Primary DRG neurons
↓Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia ↓ Na+ channels in the uninjured neurons [151]
Bullatine A Male adult Wistar rats 0.3/1/3/10/30 mg/kg
s.c
0.3/1/3/10/30 μg
i.t
↓Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia ↑Dynorphin A immunofluorescence staining in the ipsilateral SDH → LPS-induced the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in microglia [45]
Gelsemine Male Wistar rats 0.03/0.1/0.3/1/3/10 μg
i.t
↓Mechanical allodynia ↓The level of Gly α3 mRNA and protein [137]
Dehydrocorybulbine Male 129/sv mice 10 mg/kg
i.p
↓Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia [138]
  1. ↑: Enhanced/Increased/Upregulate↓: Attenuate/Downregulate/Decrease/Suppress/Inhibit/Prevent