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Table 2 Therapeutic mechanism and anti-fibrosis actions of ginseng components

From: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer as a potential therapeutic agent for organ fibrosis disease

Sample Inducing Model Animal groups Therapeutic mechanisms Organ Ref.
G-Rg1 CCl4, BLM, DOX, UUO SD rat
Wistar rats
(1) Control; (2) CCl4, BLM, TAC, UUO;
3. CCl4 + Rg1 (10, 20, 40 mg/kg);
4. BLM + prednisone acetate (5 mg/kg);
BLM + Rg1 (18, 36, 72 mg/kg);
5. TAC + Rg1 (10 mg/kg);
6. UUO + Rg1 (12.5, 25, 50 mg/kg/d)
↓ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, HYP, α-SMA, TGF-β1, TSP-1, col I, fibronectin, p38MAPK
↑Nrf2, Cav-1, ED, FS, HIF-1, p-Akt
Liver lung heart kidney 62–65
G-Rb1 CCl4, AAC, UUO SD rat (1) Control; (2) CCl4, UUO, AAC;
3. CCl4 + Rb1 (50 mg/kg);
4. AAC + losartan (4.5 mg/kg);
AAC + Rb1 (35, 70 mg/kg);
5. UUO + losartan (20 mg/kg);
UUO + Rb1 (50 mg/kg)
↓AST, ALT, TG, HYP, TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2, sICAM-1, p47phox, col I, fibronectin, 8-OhdG, HO-1, ANF, ACE, Ang II, AT1, TGF-β
↑IL-10
Liver heart kidney 66–68
G-Re ISO Wistar rat (1) Control; (2) ISO;
3. ISO + Re (5, 20 mg/kg)
↓Smad3, col I, LVEDP, HYP
↑LVSP, +dp/dt
Heart 69
G-Rg3 Thioacetamide
(TAA)
ICR mice (1) Control; (2) TAA;
3. TAA + Rg3 (5, 10 mg/kg)
↓AST, ALT, CAT, MDA,TGF-β1, α-SMA, P62
↑SOD, GSH, PI3K, AKT, mTOR
Liver 70
Ginsan BLM C57BL/6 mouse (1) Control; (2) BLM;
3. BLM + Ginsan (2 mg/kg)
↓α-SMA, col-1, FN, Smad2 Smad3, TGF-β, TβRI, TβRII, ERK, Akt;
↑TβRIII
lung 72
Sesquiterpenoids from Panax Ginseng
(SPG)
CCl4 ICR mouse (1) Control; (2) CCl4;
3. CCl4 + SPG (2.5, 10 mg/kg)
↓ALT, AST, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, JNK, ERK, MAPK p38, NF-κB p65, COX-2
↑GSH, SOD, CAT
liver 74
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