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Table 2 Interventions and outcomes

From: The mechanism of electroacupuncture for depression on basic research: a systematic review

Reference Intervention Number
of animals
Acupoint Stimulation Control Number of animals Days of EA treatmenta Outcome measure Assessment days Result Significance
[20]-1 EA 7 GV14
GV20
2 Hz, 0.3 ms, < 3 mA, 15 min Sham EA (GV14 GV20, no stimulation) 6 Days 8–29 FST
OFT
MWM
3 weeks after the initial EA treatment Decreased
Increased
p< 0.05
[34]-1 EA 8 ST36
CV4
100 Hz 3 s/ 2 Hz 3 s, 1 mA, 20 min CUMS only No intervention 8 Days 21–35 FST
OFT
24 h after the last EA treatment Decreased
Increased
p < 0.01
[34]-2 EA 8 ST36
CV4
100 Hz 3 s/ 2 Hz 3 s, 1 mA, 20 min CUMS only
No intervention
8 Days 21–35 CRH mRNA
CORT
ACTH
Afterbehavioral tests Decreased p< 0.01
p< 0.05
p< 0.05
[24]-1 EA 15 GV20
GV29
2 Hz, 1 mA, 20 min CUMS only
No intervention
15 Days 4-end of the study Body weight
OFT
0,28 Increased p< 0.01
[23]-1 EA 8 GV20
GV29
2 Hz, 1 mA, 20 min Sham EA (GV20 GV29 no stimulation) 8 Days 31–59 Body weight
OFT
SPT
3, 31, 33, 59 Increased P > 0.05
p< 0.05
[27]-1 EA + citalopram
5 mg/kg
8 GV20
EX-HN3
2 Hz/100 Hz, < 3 mA 0.2 ms,30 min CUMS only
No intervention/ Citalopram (10 mg/kg)
8 Days 28–49 FST
OFT
SPT
7,14,21,28,
35,42,49
Decreased
Increased
p< 0.01
[27]-2 EA + citalopram 5 mg/kg 8 GV20
EX-HN3
2 Hz/100 Hz, < 3 mA 0.2 ms,30 min CUMS only
No intervention/ Citalopram (10 mg/kg)
8 Days 28–49 mBDNF proBDNF TrkB After behavioral tests Increased p< 0.001
p< 0.01
p< 0.001
[44]-1 EA 10 ST36
SP6
2, 15, 100 Hz, 2/100 Hz, 0.2 ms,15 min LI11
TE5
10 Days 4–5 EZM
OFT
30 min after EA treatment Increased p< 0.05
[29]-1 EA 12 ACR 2 Hz, 1 mA, 20 min Ear-tip
CUMS only
No intervention
8
12
Days 22–36 HR BP
OFT
0,22,36,50 Decreased p< 0.01
[21]-1 EA 8 GV20
EX-HN3
2 Hz, 0.2 ms, 0.1-4 mA, 15 min Sham EA
(GV20, EX-HN 3
no stimulation)
8 Days 1–21 FST
OFT
SPT
12 h after EA treatment Decreased
Increased
P < 0.05
P < 0.01
[21]-2 EA 8 GV20
EX-HN3
2 Hz, 0.2 ms, 0.1–4 mA, 15 min Sham EA
(GV20, EX-HN 3
no stimulation)
8 Days 1–21 LTP
5-HTT
5-HT1A
After behavioral tests Increased
Decreased
p< 0.01
[45]-1 EA 8 GV20
DU24
2 Hz, 30 min Poststroke depression only
No intervention
8 Days 3–31 GSH
IL1β
TNFα,
IL6
Day 31 after
EA treatment
Increased
Decreased
Decreased
Decreased
P < 0.05
-
p < 0.001
p < 0.05
[45]-2 EA 8 GV20
DU24
2 Hz, 30 min Poststroke depression only
No intervention
8 Days 3–31 Smo, Shh,
Gli1, Ptch1
5-HT
Day 31 after
EA treatment
Increased P < 0.05
P < 0.01
P < 0.01
[42]-1 EA + chlorimi-pramine (2.5 mg/kg) 10 DU20
EX17
60 Hz/5 s–4 Hz/2.5 s, 40 min CMS only/ chlorimipramine (2.5 mg/kg) 10 Weeks 5–11 SPT
FST
After 11 weeks Increased
Decreased
P < 0.05
[42]-2 EA + chlorimi-pramine (2.5 mg/kg) 10 DU20
EX17
60 Hz/5 s–4 Hz/2.5 s 40 min chlorimipramine (5 mg/kg) 10 Weeks 5–11 SPT
FST
After 11 weeks Decreased -
P < 0.05
[43]-1 EA 8 DU20
EX17
60 Hz/5 s–4 Hz/2.5 s, 40 min CMS only 8 Weeks 5–11 SPT
FST
Body weight
After 11 weeks Increased
Decreased
P < 0.05
P < 0.01
-
[43]-2 EA + chlorimi-pramine (2.5 mg/kg) 8 DU20
EX17
60 Hz/5 s–4 Hz/2.5s s, 40 min Chlorimipramine (2.5 mg/kg)
Chlorimipramine (5 mg/kg)
8 Weeks 5–11 SPT
FST
Body weight
After 11 weeks Increased
Decreased
P < 0.05
P < 0.01
-
[30]-1 EA 6 GV20 GV29 2 Hz,1 mA, 20 min CUMS only
No intervention
6 Days 1–21 Gal Protein Gal mRNA The 22nd day Increased p< 0.05
p< 0.01
[25]-1 EA 10 GV20 EX-HN3 2 Hz,1 mA, 20 min Sham EA (GV20, EX-HN 3 no stimulation) 10 Days 33–59 TPH
5-HT1A
After behavioral tests Increased p< 0.01
[22]-1 EA 7 GV20 EX-HN 3 2 Hz, < 3 mA 0.2 ms,15 min WKY only
No intervention
6 Days 1–21 LTP
GluN2B
After behavioral tests Increased p< 0.01
[35]-1 EA 10 GV20 GV29 1 mA, 2 Hz, 5 Hz, 30 min CUMS only
No intervention
10 Days 21–28 Body weight
SPT
OFT
After intervention termination Increased p< 0.05
[35]-2 EA + SSRI
paroxetine (1.8 mg/kg)
15 GV20 GV29 1 mA, 2 Hz, 5 Hz, 30 min EA + saline (1.8 mg/kg) 15 Days 21–28 pyramidal -cell
PSD
Mitochondrion
After behavioral tests Increased -
[40]-1 EA 10 GV20 GV29 2 Hz,1 mA, 20 min CRS only
No intervention
10 Days 1–21 IL-1beta IL-6 After behavioral tests Decreased p< 0.05
[40]-1 EA 8 DU20
GB34
2/100 Hz
0.3 mA
30 min
CUMS only
No intervention
8 Weeks 7–11 ASC
caspase-1
P2 × 7R
IL-1β, IL-6
Iba-1,IL-18
GFAP- mRNA
After behavioral tests Decreased
Increased
p< 0.001
[33]-1 EA 10 GV20
EX-HN 3
ST40 LR3
40 Hz 15 min CUMS only
No intervention Maprotiline (10 mg/kg)
10
10
Days 2–23 Copper, zinc After EA treatment Decreased
Increased
p< 0.05
[33]-1 EA 8 GV20 15 Hz 1 mA, 20 min CUMS only
No intervention/ catgut embedding (CE)
8
8
Days 1–21 CORT ACTH 24 h
after the last EA treatment
Decreased p< 0.01
[36]-1 EA 10 GV20
PC6 SP6
25 min CUMS only
No intervention
10 Days 29–42 BDNF After behavioral tests Increased p< 0.05
[46]-1 EA 3 GV14
GV20
100 Hz, 30 min,0.2 ms1,2,3 mA Sham EA
(GV14 GV20
no stimulation)
3 weeks 2–6 TrkB After EA treatment Increased -
[31]-1 EA 8 LI4 LR3 2 and 20 Hz, 30 min. CUMS only
No intervention
8 weeks 3–6 cAMP
AC
PKA
After behavioral tests Increased p< 0.01
[28]-1 EA 8 GV20 GB34 2 /100 Hz ,
0.3 mA, 30 min.
CUMS only
No intervention
8 Days 15–28 p-ERK After behavioral tests Increased P < 0.01
[39]-1 EA 7 GV20 EX-HN3 2 Hz, < 3 mA 0.3 ms,15 min Sham EA
(GV20, EX-HN 3
no stimulation)
7 Days 15–28 p-ERK1/2/
ERK p-P38/P38
After behavioral tests Increased p< 0.01
[32]-1 EA 24 GV20 GV29 2 Hz, 0.6 mA, 20 min CUMS only
No intervention
24 Days 1–21 p-ERK After behavioral tests Increased p< 0.05
[32]-2 EA+
PD98059
0.1 mg/kg
8 GV20 GV29 2 Hz, 0.6 mA, 20 min EA
GV20 GV29 2 Hz, 0.6 mA, 20 min
8 Days 1–21 p-ERK After behavioral tests Decreased p< 0.05
[41]-1 EA 15 GV20 GV29 2 Hz, 1 mA, 20 minutes CRS only
No intervention
15 Days 1–28 Prkc
DAT
Th
Mapt
Day 28 Decreased
Decreased
Increased
Increased
p< 0.05
p > 0.05
p< 0.05
p > 0.05
[37]-1 EA 15 GV20 EX-HN3 2 Hz,1 mA
20 min
CUMS only
No intervention
15 Days 1–21 Vgf, Igf2, Tmp32, Loc500373, Hif1a, Folr1, Nmb, Rtn After behavioral tests Increased -
[47]-1 EA 10–13 GV20 GV29 2 Hz, 2 mA, 15 min MS only
No intervention
10–13 Days 61–81 SPT
OFT
Days 81–96 Increased
Decreased
p< 0.05
p< 0.01
[47]-2 EA 8–10 GV20 GV29 2 Hz, 2 mA, 15 min Sham EA
(GV20 GV29
no stimulation)
8–10 Days 61–81 ACTH
CORT
After behavioral tests Decreased p< 0.001
p< 0.05
[47]-3 EA 8–10 GV20 GV29 2 Hz, 2 mA, 15 min Sham EA
(GV20 GV29
no stimulation)
8–10 Days 61–81 Ucp3, Cplx3, Dbp, Cdh12
LOC102555-167, LOC10-2555866, Npepo, Syt6
After behavioral tests Increased
Decreased
p< 0.05
  1. FST forced swim test, OFT open-field test MWM morris water maze test, EZM elevated zero maze, CRH corticotropin-releasing hormone, CORT corticosterone ACTH adrenocorticotropicACTH mBDNF mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor proBDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursorproBDNF TrkB receptor tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B, HR heart rate, BP blood pressure, Gal galanin, TPH tryptophan hydroxylase, 5-HT serotonin, cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate, AC adenylyl cyclase, PKA protein kinase A, ERK extracellular signal-regulated kinase, LA Locomotor activity, p-ERK phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, LTP long-term potentiation, PSD postsynapse density, Prkc protein kinase C, Mapt microtubule-associated protein Tau, DAT dopamine transporter, Th tyrosine hydroxylase
  2. aDays after injection