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Table 2 Basic descriptions of the studies included in this review

From: Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicines for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials

No Authors, year TCM name in the test group TCM component Diagnosis criteria of NAFLD History of NAFLD Number of participants in total (test group, control group) Number of male, female Participants’ mean age (years old)
1 Wu et al., 2020 [43] Jianpi Qingzhi prescription Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma, Crataegi Fructus, Curcumae Radix, Poria, Cassiae Semen, etc. IM T: 3.05 ± 0.61 years
C: 2.96 ± 0.67 years
60 (30, 30) 35, 25 T: 49.22 ± 5.65
C: 48.96 ± 5.71
2 Lyv et al., 2020 [47] Shenge formula Codonopsis Radix, Puerariae Lobatae Radix, Atractylodis Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. WM N/A 65 (34, 31) 37, 28 T: 42.03 ± 13.91
C: 44.94 ± 13.09
3 Yang et al., 2019 [59] Yanggan Jieyu granule Moutan Cortex, Gardeniae Fructus, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Radix Bupleuri, Poria, etc. IM N/A 65 (30, 30) 37, 28 T: 42.03 ± 13.91
C: 44.94 ± 13.09
4 Yang et al., 2019 [97] Qinjiang Baoling decoction Radix Bupleur, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Gynostemmatis Herba, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, Curcumae Rhizoma, Poria, etc. IM T: 21.3 ± 13.4 months
C: 20.9 ± 12.7 months
100 (50, 50) 59, 41 T: 57.3 ± 12.2
C: 51.7 ± 10.3
5 Li et al., 2018 [62] Qutan Huoxue decoction Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Gynostemmatis Herba, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. IM N/A 140 (63, 62) 113, 27 T: 42.01 ± 9.60
C: 41.43 ± 9.31
6 Chen et al., 2017 [98] Shuangqing granule Gynostemmae Herba, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygonum Cuspidati Rhizoma Et Radix, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, and Nelumbinis Folium IM T: 0.5–8 years
C: 0.6–7 years
103 (78, 25) 49, 53 Range: 18–65
7 Hu et al., 2017 [31] Jianpishugan and Huoxuehuatan formulae Astragali Radix, Radix Bupleuri, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, etc. IM T: 1–12 years
C: 1–13 year
140 (70, 70) 83, 57 T: 42.9 ± 5.3
C: 43.2 ± 5.7
8 Jiang et al., 2017 [41] Dahuang Lidan capsule Rhei Radix Et Rhizoma, Phyllanthi Fructus and Radix Gymnadeniae IM N/A 144 (72, 72) 104, 40 T: 43.0 ± 0.03
C: 43.4 ± 7.60
9 Yang et al., 2017 [53] Cigu Xiaozhi capsule Cremastrae Pseudobulbus, Alismatis Rhizoma, Crataegi Fructus, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Radix Bupleuri, Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum, Cassiae Semen, etc. WM N/A 87 (43, 44) 50, 37 T: 49.02 ± 11.19
C: 50.63 ± 10.97
10 Jeong et al., 2017 [28] HL tablet Extract of Magnolia officinalis WM N/A 72 (22, 23, 23)* 54, 18 H: 39.1 ± 9.5
L: 45.5 ± 11.5
C: 42.7 ± 11.2
11 Sun et al., 2017 [68] Jianpi Qushi prescription Codonopsis Radix, Poria, Microctis Folium, Microctis Folium, Crataegi Fructus, Cassiae Semen, Pogostemonis Herba, etc. IM T: 3.41 ± 2.56 years
C: 4.02 ± 2.73 years
120 (60, 60) 67, 53 T: 34.61 ± 12.47
C: 36.37 ± 10.25
12 Niu, 2016 [48] Shugan Jianpi Huatan decoction Codonopsis Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Alismatis Rhizoma, Coicis Semen, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Radix Bupleuri, Curcumae Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. IM T: 3.3 ± 0.4 years
C: 3.5 ± 0.8 years
120 (60, 60) 72, 48 T: 47.2 ± 2.7
C: 46.4 ± 2.4
13 Zhang et al., 2016 [99] Yiqi Qizhu decoction Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Poria, Citri Pericarpium Reticulatae, Radix Bupleuri, Curcumae Radix, Coicis Semen, Pogostemonis Herba, etc. IM N/A 104 (52, 52) 67, 37 T: 24–60
C: 25–58
14 Zhang et al., 2016 [34] Jiang Zhi granules Gynostemmatis Herba, Polygonum Cuspidati Rhizoma Et Radix, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma and Nelumbinis Folium IM N/A 144 (73, 71) 110, 34 T: 42.4 ± 11.6
C: 44.8 ± 11.4
15 Qi et al., 2016 [63] Jiangpi Shugan Huoxue Huatan decoction Radix Bupleuri, Curcumae Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Alismatis Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Crataegi Fructus, etc. IM N/A 90 (45, 45) 53, 37 T: 49.49 ± 9.91
C: 48.87 ± 9.06
16 Tan et al., 2016 [100] Shugan Jianpi decoction Radix Bupleuri, Aurantii Fructus, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Crataegi Fructus, Cyperi Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Citri Pericarpium Reticulatae, etc. WM T: 5.75 ± 2.41 years
C: 5.43 ± 2.85 years
92 (45, 47) 50, 42 T: 40.25 ± 4.78
C: 43.02 ± 5.48
17 Yu et al., 2016 [69] Qinggan Jiangzhi decoction Poria, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Alismatis Rhizoma, etc. IM T: mean = 7.5 years
C: mean = 8.2 years
125 (62, 63) 71, 54 T: 48.28
C: 49.81
18 Yin et al., 2016 [35] Danxia Zhifang decoction; Simulated Zhiganxiao capsule Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum, Radix Bupleuri, Poria, Citri Pericarpium Reticulatae, Raphani Semen, Crataegi Fructus, etc. IM N/A 202 (98, 104) 149, 53 T: 43.38 ± 9.75
C: 44.49 ± 9.80
19 Zhu, 2015 [33] Qingdan Jiangzhi decoction Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Poria, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Citri Pericarpium Reticulatae, Nelumbinis Folium, Crataegi Fructus, Curcumae Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Radix Bupleuri, etc. IM T: 5.1 ± 1.2 years
C:4.9 ± 1.3 years
80 (40, 40) 43, 37 T: 44.6 ± 9.6
C: 42.8 ± 8.4
20 Li, 2015 [64] Huatan Lishi Huoxue granule combined granule decoction Alismatis Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Crataegi Fructus, Cassiae Semen and Radix Bupleuri N/A T: 3.5 ± 2.2 years
C: 3.9 ± 2.3 years
104 (52, 52) 78, 26 T: 42.3 ± 8.4
C: 41.7 ± 7.8
21 Chen et al., 2015 [101] Zaozhu Yinchen decoction Gleditsiae Spina, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Rhei Radix Et Rhizoma and Gardeniae Fructus IM T: 30.32 ± 6.98 months
C: 31.14 ± 7.21 months
78 (40, 38) 41, 37 T: 38.28 ± 4.82
C: 39.53 ± 4.62
22 Yu et al., 2015 [52] Tiaogan Lipi recipe Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Coicis Semen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Cyperi Rhizoma, Radix Bupleuri, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Polygonum Cuspidati Rhizoma Et Radix, Cassiae Semen, Crataegi Fructus, etc. IM T: 3.38 ± 4.17 years
C: 3.61 ± 4.93 years
99 (66, 33) 52, 47 T: 49.22 ± 11.08
C: 49.34 ± 10.77
23 Li et al., 2015 [58] Qinghua decoction Nelumbinis Folium, Gynostemmatis Herba, Coicis Semen, Poria, Citri Pericarpium Reticulatae, Alismatis Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, etc. WM T: 3.15 ± 1.52 years
C: 3.82 ± 1.3 years
119 (60, 59) 74, 45 T: 51.1 ± 9.8
C: 48.8 ± 11.2
24 Liu et al., 2014 [49] Heze lipid-lowering oral liquid Gynostemmatis Herba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma, Nelumbinis Folium, Citri Pericarpium Reticulatae, Crataegi Fructus, etc. IM Range: 0.5–10 years 120 (60, 60) 55, 65 T: 50 ± 12.27
C: 50.88 ± 13.17
25 Liu et al., 2014 [50] Ruangan Jiangzhi capsule Radix Bupleuri, Rhei Radix Et Rhizoma, Prunus Semen, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Nelumbinis Folium, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Crataegi Fructus, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, etc. IM T: mean = 2.9 years
C: mean = 2.8 years
120 (60, 60) 87, 33 T: 45.7
C: 44.3
26 Li et al., 2014 [51] Jianpi Shugan recipe Gynostemmae Herba, Curcumae Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Alismatis Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Crataegi Fructus, etc. IM N/A 201 (100, 101) 143, 58 T: 43.41 ± 10.80
C: 39.81 ± 11.79
27 Zhu et al., 2014 [102] Zhigan pill Alismatis Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Crataegi Fructus, Curcumae Radix, Polygonum Cuspidati Rhizoma Et Radix, etc. IM T: 3.72 ± 2.53 years
C: 3.00 ± 2.35 years
158 (120, 38) 122, 36 T: 46.15 ± 7.37
C: 45.70 ± 9.41
28 Wen et al., 2014 [60] Jiangan Xiaozhi granule Curcumae Rhizoma, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, etc. IM T: 29.97 ± 10.96 months
C: 30.14 ± 10.60 months
73 (37, 36) 35, 38 T: 43.10 ± 9.14
C: 43.08 ± 8.65
29 Deng, 2013 [103] Jiangan Sanqing decoction Lycii Fructus, Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Crataegi Fructus, Nelumbinis Folium, Citri Pericarpium Reticulatae, Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum, Radix Bupleuri, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. WM T: 3.3 ± 1.2 years
C: 3.1 ± 1.3 years
60 (30, 30) 40, 20 T: 44.1 ± 6.2
C: 43.3 ± 5.9
30 Li et al., 2013 [54] Jianpi Huatan Zhuyu prescription Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Crataegi Fructus, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Prunus Semen, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Raphani Semen, etc. IM T: 23.3 ± 11.1 months
C: 21.4 ± 13.2 months
118 (60, 58) 59, 59 T: 43.2 ± 14.2
C: 42.7 ± 13.0
31 Song et al., 2013 [104] Modified Linggui Zhugan decoction Poria, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Ramulus, Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Caulis Nelumbonis and Alismatis Rhizoma IM T: 4.24 ± 2.10 years
C: 4.20 ± 2.12 years
90 (48, 42) 72, 18 T: 44.8 ± 4.2
C: 42.2 ± 4.9
32 Li et al., 2013 [42] Qushi Huayu decoction Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Polygonum Cuspidati Rhizoma Et Radix, Herba Hyperici Japonici, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, and Gardeniae Fructus IM N/A 164 (72, 73) 82, 82 T: 44.6 ± 10.9
C: 45.6 ± 11.2
33 Wong et al., 2013 [26] Phyllanthus urinaria Phyllanthus urinaria N/A N/A 60 (40, 20) 33, 27 T: 52 ± 10
C: 48 ± 11
34 Pan et al., 2013 [27] Jiang Zhi granule Gynostemmatis Herba, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygonum Cuspidati Rhizoma Et Radix, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Nelumbinis Folium WM T: 26.61 ± 29.29 m
C: 30.02 ± 34.59 m
221 (111, 110) 177, 44 T: 42.39 ± 11.55
C: 44.82 ± 11.41
35 Chen et al., 2012 [45] Jindanwang mixture lysimachiae Herba, Sargassum, Plantaginis Semen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Curcumae Radix, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, etc. IM Mean = 1.25 years 124 (62, 62) 79, 45 Range: 28–65
36 Zhao et al., 2012 [30] Huatan Xiezhuo recipe Alismatis Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Crataegi Fructus, Radix Bupleuri, etc. IM N/A 194 (96, 98) N/A N/A
37 Wang et al., 2012 [65] Yigan Jiedu decoction Sargassum, Curcumae Radix, Cassiae Semen, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Sedi Herba, Ginseng Folium, Radix Bupleuri, etc. IM T: 4.8 ± 3.6 years
C: 4.1 ± 4.3 years
90 (45, 45) 49, 41 T: 49.64 ± 14.29
C: 47.82 ± 15.08
38 Pei et al., 2012 [70] Qinggan Huatan Huoxue recipe Cassiae Semen, Radix Bupleuri, Citri Pericarpium Reticulatae, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Curcumae Radix, Crataegi Fructus, Rhei Radix Et Rhizoma, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, etc. IM T: 17.83 ± 19.55 months
C: 20.05 ± 28.11 months
150 (78, 72) 101, 49 T: 43.44 ± 12.76
C: 44.56 ± 12.30
39 Wu, 2012 [83] Jianpi Huatan Fang Atractylodis Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Alismatis Rhizoma, Curcumae Radix, Crataegi Fructus, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. WM T: 1.8 ± 1.2 years
C: 2.1 ± 1.4 years
60 (30, 30) 53, 7 T: 9.3 ± 2.1
C: 8.9 ± 2.5
40 Tong et al., 2011 [105] Jiedu Jianpi Tongluo decoction Semen Hoveniae, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma WM Range: 1–8 years 100 (45, 46) 58, 42 36.9
41 Zhang et al., 2011 [66] Kangzhi decoction Astragali Radix, Crataegi Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Alismatis Rhizoma, Nelumbinis Folium, Atractylodis Rhizoma, Sedi Herba, etc. IM T: 0.3–12.5 years
C: 0.3–11.5 years
182 (92, 90) 79, 103 T: 38.6 ± 12.65
C: 39.3 ± 13.47
42 Gu et al., 2011 [61] Zhigan capsule Alismatis Rhizoma, Poria, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Nelumbinis Folium, Crataegi Fructus, Radix Bupleuri, Puerariae Lobatae Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. IM T: 1–10 years
C: 1–11 years
100 (50, 50) 70, 30 T: 41.2 ± 10.7
C: 41.6 ± 11.1
43 Zhao et al., 2010 [46] Qiyin tea Astragali Radix, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Crataegi Fructus, Psoraleae Fructus, Alismatis Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizoma, Rhei Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. IM N/A 112 (56, 56) 46, 66 N/A
44 Ding et al., 2010 [88] Pingganjian decoction Astragali Radix, Typhae Pollen, Curcumae Longae Rhizoma,Coptidis Rhizomacoptidis Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma, Poria, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Crataegi Fructus, etc. IM N/A 105 (54, 51) 60, 45 T: 45.8 ± 13.5
C: 47.2 ± 15.6
45 Pan et al., 2010 [32] Tiaozhiji granules Curcumae Rhizoma, Curcumae Radix, Raphani Semen, Crataegi Fructus, Aurantii Fructus, Alismatis Rhizoma, etc. IM T: 24.1 ± 10.4 years
C: 22.3 ± 12.1 years
70 (35, 35) 49, 21 T: 46.0 ± 13.7
C: 50.9 ± 16.4
46 Liu et al., 2008 [67] Qiyin granules Astragali Radix, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Crataegi Fructus, Psoraleae Fructus, Alismatis Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, etc. IM N/A 70 (35, 35) N/A N/A
47 Ji et al., 2008 [25] Danning tablet Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei, Giant Knotweed Rhizome, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium, Radix Curcu Mae, Fructus Crataegi and Imperatae Rhizoma IM N/A 135 (102, 33) 102, 33 T: 48.37 ± 9.60
C: 44.43 ± 10.40
48 Chen et al., 2008 [29] Xiaoyao San decoction and Danggui Shaoyao San decoction Radix Bupleuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Alismatis Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. IM Range: 0.5–5 years 120 (60, 60) 58, 62 49.56 ± 5.67
49 Lou et al., 2008 [44] Yiqi Sanju formula Astragali Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, etc. WM N/A 67 (39, 28) 44, 23 T: 52.6 ± 12.8
C: 54.8 ± 11.0
50 Li et al., 2007 [55] Jianpi Bushen decoction Astragali Radix, Codonopsis Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Corni Fructus, Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, Dioscoreae Rhizoma, etc. WM Range: 1–6 years 100 (47, 45) 78, 22 38.5
51 Yang et al., 2007 [56] Yigan Jiangzhi capsule Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Curcumae Radix, Ginkgo Folium, Nelumbinis Folium, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, etc. WM T: 2.0 ± 0.5
C: 1.5 ± 0.6
128 (68, 60) 68, 60 T: 45 ± 2
C: 47 ± 4
52 Gu et al., 2007 [24] Tiaozhi Yanggan decoction Thorowax Root, Turmeric Root, Red Peony Root, Hawthorn Fruit, Water-Plantain Tuber, Cassia Seed, Giant Knotweed Rhizome, Prepared Rhubarb, Peach Kernel, Red Sage Root, Radish Seed and Tangerine Peel IM T: mean = 3 months and 8 years
C: mean = 2 months and 6 years
130 (101, 29) 98, 32 T: 47.38 ± 9.50 years
C: 43.34 ± 10.54 years
53 Chen et al., 2006 [57] Qianggan capsule Astragali Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Curcumae Radix, Codonopsis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Crataegi Fructus, Artemisia Scopariae Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, etc. IM N/A 122 (64, 58) 77, 45 T: 42.5
C: 45.8
  1. T test group, C control group, H high dose group, L low dose group, IM integrative medicine, WM Western medicine
  2. 74(22, 23,23)*: this study set three group: high dose, low dose and placebo