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Table 2 Indirect regulatory efficacy of Chinese medicines on NF-κB pathway

From: Targeting NF-κB pathway for treating ulcerative colitis: comprehensive regulatory characteristics of Chinese medicines

Classifications Chinese medicines Models Mechanisms References
Heat-clearing and dampness-drying medicine Casticin RAW264.7 Down-regulate the phosphorylation of AKT, thus down-regulate the phosphate kinase activity of IKKα/β, thereby failing to phosphorylate IκBα [44]
Baicalin DSS-induced colon tissue Reduce the protein levels of p-IκB-α, whereas IκB-α protein expression is increased [45]
UC patients Increase p-STAT6/STAT6 ratio, but decrease ratios of p-STAT4/STAT4 [46]
Wogonin Caco-2 cells Decrease phosphorylation and degradation of IκB; inhibit the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and TAK1 [47]
Wogonoside DSS-induced colon tissues Inhibit phosphorylated IκBα [48]
AOM/DSS-induced tumor tissues Decrease the phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα, inhibit NF-κB activation via PI3K/Akt pathway [49]
THP-1 cells Inhibit phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα [49]
Berberine Colonic macrophages Inhibit ERK1/2, p38, and JNK activation; inhibit IκB degradation [50]
Colonic epithelial cells Decrease IκB degradation and ERK1/2 and p38 activation [50]
Berberine hydrochloride DSS-induced colonic tissues Suppress the expressions of phosphorylation of STAT3; inhibit the activation of IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB [54, 55]
Apocynin DSS-induced tissues Reduce the activation of STAT3 [56]
SM934 DSS-induced colon tissue Decrease phosphorylation of IκB; abrogate the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by DSS [61]
Interior-warming and drying dampness medicine Aesculin RAW264.7 cells Suppress the phosphorylation of IκBα [65]
Total triterpenoids of Chaenomeles speciosa DSS-induced colon tissue Down-regulate the protein expressions of cytosol PPARγ, tissue p-IKKβ and p-IκBα, decrease the p-IKKβ/IKKβ and p-IκBα/IκBα ratios, up-regulate the protein expressions of nucleus PPARγ, tissue SIRT1 [66]
Cardamonin RAW264.7 cells Inhibit phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; inhibit p38 phosphorylation [67]
3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid TNBS-induced colon tissues Decrease the change of IκBα expression in the nucleus [70]
Wu Zhu Yu DSS-induced colonic tissues Down-regulated the increased phosphorylation levels of IκB [71]
Clove DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce the expressions of p-IκB-α [73]
RAW264.7 macrophages Decrease the expressions of p-IκB-α [73]
Zanthoxylum bungeanum DSS-induced colon tissue Inhibit IκBα phosphorylation levels; suppress NF-κB due to inhibition of TLR4 [74]
Galangin DSS-induced colon tissue Suppress protein expressions of p-Ikk-βα; increase the expression level of phosphorylation of IκBα in the cytoplasmic fraction [75]
Detoxificating and purgative medicine Parthenolide DSS-induced colon tissue Inhibit IkB protein phosphorylation; block the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα [76]
HCT116 cells Inhibit the phosphorylation of IkB-α [77]
Arctigenin DSS-induced colonic tissues Suppress phosphorylation of IκBα [78]
Andrographolide derivative AL-1 TNBS-induced colon tissues Aattenuate the expression levels of p-IκBα; increase the expression of PPAR-γ [79]
Andrographolide derivative CX-10 DSS-induced colonic tissue Reduce the expressions of p-IκBα; increase the expression of IκBα and suppresses the phosphorylated p38MAPK, ERK and JNK [80]
Brucea javanica oil DSS-induced colon tissues Inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα [82]
Total flavonoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd RAW 264.7 cells Suppress IκB phosphorylation, and reduce the phosphorylation of MAPK [83]
Qing Dai RAW264.7 cells Inhibit IkBα degradation [86]
Indirubin DSS-induced colon tissues Reverse DSS-mediated up-regulation of p-IκBα and p-IKKα/β as well as down-regulation of IκBα and IKKα/β [87]
Dandelion DSS-induced NCM460 cell Decrease the phosphorylation of Akt [88]
Rhubarb-type anthraquinones HT-29 cells Emodin up-regulating the expression of IκB [92]
Macrophages Chrysophanol inhibit IκBα degradation [93]
Gallic acid DSS-induced colon tissue Attenuate the activation and nuclear accumulation of p-STAT3 (Y705); prevent the degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB [94]
Allicin DSS-induced colonic mucosa Inhibit activation and nuclear accumulation of STAT3; prevent the inhibition of protein IκB degradation [95]
Bergenin RAW264.7 cells Activate PPARγ, leading to increased expression of SIRT1 [97]
Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn RAW264.7 cells Inhibit IκB phosphorylation [98]
Chlorogenic acid DSS-induced Colon Mucosa Reduce the phosphorylation level of IκB; improve the expression of ERK1/2, p-ERK, p38, p-p38, JNK, and pJNK proteins of the MAPK/ERK/JNK pathway [99]
Blood-activating medicine Liriodendrin DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce in phosphorylation of Akt; Block the phosphorylation of IκBα [101]
RAW264.7 macrophages Reduce the phosphorylation of IκBα [101]
Shikonin DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce the expression of pSTAT-3 [102]
Tetramethylpyrazine OXZ-induced colitis mucosa Restore PPAR-γ expression; reverse increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation [103]
(2)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate IEC-6 cells Inhibit the activation of IκB kinase [106]
Curcumin DSS-induced colonic tissue Inhibit the activating signals of p38MAPK [112]
Qi-regulating medicine Norisoboldine DSS-induced colon tissues Repress the phosphorylations of p38MAPK and ERK [113]
Tonifying medicine Eclipta Prostrata HT-29 cells Reduce the degradation of IκB [115]
Astragaloside IV CCD‑18Co cells Inhibit the phosphorylation of IκB [117]
Licochalcone A DSS-induced colonic tissues Reverse the increased expression of IKKα and p-IκB [118]
The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. AOM/DSS-induced colon tissue Attenuate inflammation, tumor development and progression by down-regulation of expression of STAT3 [122]
Lentinus edodes β-glucans DSS-induced colon tissues Modify p38MAPK and ERK1/2, and then phosphorylating PPARγ, which negatively regulates activation of NF-κB [124]
Mango polyphenolics DSS-induced intestinal mucosa Attenuate the levels of inflammatory markers via suppression of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, in part through up-regulation of miRNA-126 [125]
Astringent medicine Ursolic acid Macrophages Inhibit the phosphorylation of IKKβ and IκBα; suppress MAPK signaling pathways [129]
Rubus coreanus RAW264.7 macrophages Block the IκBα phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; suppression of MAPK activation [130]
Osthole DSS-induced colonic tissue Reduce the expression of p-IκBα and increase IκBα expression [132]
RAW 264.7 cells Reduce the phosphorylation of the MAPK/p38 protein; Facilitate a full recovery of the degradated IκBα protein [132]
Tonifying Qi and activating blood category Shen Ling Bai Zhu San DSS-induced colonic tissue MAPK and NF-κB pathways share crosstalk [133]
Tou Nong San TNBS-induced colon tissue Inhibit p65 mainly by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IKKβ and thus the degradation of IB [134]
Heat-clearing and drying dampness category Gegenqinlian decoction DSS-induced colonic tissues Decrease the P-IκB [139]
RAW 264.7 cells Inhibit the degradation of IκB [139]
Jianpi Qingchang decoction DSS‑induced colon tissue Increase the expression of IκB [140]
Qing Hua Chang Yin DSS‑induced colon tissue Inhibit the expression of the phosphorylation of IκB [143]
Caco-2 cells Suppress the phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3 [144]
QingBai decoction DSS-induced colon tissue Strengthen mucus barrier through inhibiting p‐ERK and Notch signaling [145]
Chang-An-Shuan TNBS-induced colonic tissues Reduce the levels of p38 and p-AKT proteins [146]
Compound sophorae decoction DSS‑induced colonic tissues Suppress the activation of STAT3 [149]
Huangkui Lianchang decoction DSS-induced Colon Tissue Decrease the IκBα and p-IκBα levels [150]
Warming yang and drying dampness category Modified ZenWu decoction DSS-induced colonic tissues Lessen the degradation of IκBα [154]
Ping weisan DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce phosphorylation of IκBα [155]
RAW264.7cells Reduce phosphorylation of IκBα [155]
Astringent category Zhenrenyangzang decoction TNBS-induced colon tissues Attenuate the protein expression of IκB-α subunit and phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) [156]