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Table 2 Indirect regulatory efficacy of Chinese medicines on NF-κB pathway

From: Targeting NF-κB pathway for treating ulcerative colitis: comprehensive regulatory characteristics of Chinese medicines


Chinese medicines




Heat-clearing and dampness-drying medicine



Down-regulate the phosphorylation of AKT, thus down-regulate the phosphate kinase activity of IKKα/β, thereby failing to phosphorylate IκBα



DSS-induced colon tissue

Reduce the protein levels of p-IκB-α, whereas IκB-α protein expression is increased


UC patients

Increase p-STAT6/STAT6 ratio, but decrease ratios of p-STAT4/STAT4



Caco-2 cells

Decrease phosphorylation and degradation of IκB; inhibit the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and TAK1



DSS-induced colon tissues

Inhibit phosphorylated IκBα


AOM/DSS-induced tumor tissues

Decrease the phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα, inhibit NF-κB activation via PI3K/Akt pathway


THP-1 cells

Inhibit phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα



Colonic macrophages

Inhibit ERK1/2, p38, and JNK activation; inhibit IκB degradation


Colonic epithelial cells

Decrease IκB degradation and ERK1/2 and p38 activation


Berberine hydrochloride

DSS-induced colonic tissues

Suppress the expressions of phosphorylation of STAT3; inhibit the activation of IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB

[54, 55]


DSS-induced tissues

Reduce the activation of STAT3



DSS-induced colon tissue

Decrease phosphorylation of IκB; abrogate the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by DSS


Interior-warming and drying dampness medicine


RAW264.7 cells

Suppress the phosphorylation of IκBα


Total triterpenoids of Chaenomeles speciosa

DSS-induced colon tissue

Down-regulate the protein expressions of cytosol PPARγ, tissue p-IKKβ and p-IκBα, decrease the p-IKKβ/IKKβ and p-IκBα/IκBα ratios, up-regulate the protein expressions of nucleus PPARγ, tissue SIRT1



RAW264.7 cells

Inhibit phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; inhibit p38 phosphorylation


3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid

TNBS-induced colon tissues

Decrease the change of IκBα expression in the nucleus


Wu Zhu Yu

DSS-induced colonic tissues

Down-regulated the increased phosphorylation levels of IκB



DSS-induced colon tissues

Reduce the expressions of p-IκB-α


RAW264.7 macrophages

Decrease the expressions of p-IκB-α


Zanthoxylum bungeanum

DSS-induced colon tissue

Inhibit IκBα phosphorylation levels; suppress NF-κB due to inhibition of TLR4



DSS-induced colon tissue

Suppress protein expressions of p-Ikk-βα; increase the expression level of phosphorylation of IκBα in the cytoplasmic fraction


Detoxificating and purgative medicine


DSS-induced colon tissue

Inhibit IkB protein phosphorylation; block the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα


HCT116 cells

Inhibit the phosphorylation of IkB-α



DSS-induced colonic tissues

Suppress phosphorylation of IκBα


Andrographolide derivative AL-1

TNBS-induced colon tissues

Aattenuate the expression levels of p-IκBα; increase the expression of PPAR-γ


Andrographolide derivative CX-10

DSS-induced colonic tissue

Reduce the expressions of p-IκBα; increase the expression of IκBα and suppresses the phosphorylated p38MAPK, ERK and JNK


Brucea javanica oil

DSS-induced colon tissues

Inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα


Total flavonoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd

RAW 264.7 cells

Suppress IκB phosphorylation, and reduce the phosphorylation of MAPK


Qing Dai

RAW264.7 cells

Inhibit IkBα degradation



DSS-induced colon tissues

Reverse DSS-mediated up-regulation of p-IκBα and p-IKKα/β as well as down-regulation of IκBα and IKKα/β



DSS-induced NCM460 cell

Decrease the phosphorylation of Akt


Rhubarb-type anthraquinones

HT-29 cells

Emodin up-regulating the expression of IκB



Chrysophanol inhibit IκBα degradation


Gallic acid

DSS-induced colon tissue

Attenuate the activation and nuclear accumulation of p-STAT3 (Y705); prevent the degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB



DSS-induced colonic mucosa

Inhibit activation and nuclear accumulation of STAT3; prevent the inhibition of protein IκB degradation



RAW264.7 cells

Activate PPARγ, leading to increased expression of SIRT1


Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn

RAW264.7 cells

Inhibit IκB phosphorylation


Chlorogenic acid

DSS-induced Colon Mucosa

Reduce the phosphorylation level of IκB; improve the expression of ERK1/2, p-ERK, p38, p-p38, JNK, and pJNK proteins of the MAPK/ERK/JNK pathway


Blood-activating medicine


DSS-induced colon tissues

Reduce in phosphorylation of Akt; Block the phosphorylation of IκBα


RAW264.7 macrophages

Reduce the phosphorylation of IκBα



DSS-induced colon tissues

Reduce the expression of pSTAT-3



OXZ-induced colitis mucosa

Restore PPAR-γ expression; reverse increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation



IEC-6 cells

Inhibit the activation of IκB kinase



DSS-induced colonic tissue

Inhibit the activating signals of p38MAPK


Qi-regulating medicine


DSS-induced colon tissues

Repress the phosphorylations of p38MAPK and ERK


Tonifying medicine

Eclipta Prostrata

HT-29 cells

Reduce the degradation of IκB


Astragaloside IV

CCD‑18Co cells

Inhibit the phosphorylation of IκB


Licochalcone A

DSS-induced colonic tissues

Reverse the increased expression of IKKα and p-IκB


The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

AOM/DSS-induced colon tissue

Attenuate inflammation, tumor development and progression by down-regulation of expression of STAT3


Lentinus edodes β-glucans

DSS-induced colon tissues

Modify p38MAPK and ERK1/2, and then phosphorylating PPARγ, which negatively regulates activation of NF-κB


Mango polyphenolics

DSS-induced intestinal mucosa

Attenuate the levels of inflammatory markers via suppression of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, in part through up-regulation of miRNA-126


Astringent medicine

Ursolic acid


Inhibit the phosphorylation of IKKβ and IκBα; suppress MAPK signaling pathways


Rubus coreanus

RAW264.7 macrophages

Block the IκBα phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; suppression of MAPK activation



DSS-induced colonic tissue

Reduce the expression of p-IκBα and increase IκBα expression


RAW 264.7 cells

Reduce the phosphorylation of the MAPK/p38 protein; Facilitate a full recovery of the degradated IκBα protein


Tonifying Qi and activating blood category

Shen Ling Bai Zhu San

DSS-induced colonic tissue

MAPK and NF-κB pathways share crosstalk


Tou Nong San

TNBS-induced colon tissue

Inhibit p65 mainly by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IKKβ and thus the degradation of IB


Heat-clearing and drying dampness category

Gegenqinlian decoction

DSS-induced colonic tissues

Decrease the P-IκB


RAW 264.7 cells

Inhibit the degradation of IκB


Jianpi Qingchang decoction

DSS‑induced colon tissue

Increase the expression of IκB


Qing Hua Chang Yin

DSS‑induced colon tissue

Inhibit the expression of the phosphorylation of IκB


Caco-2 cells

Suppress the phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3


QingBai decoction

DSS-induced colon tissue

Strengthen mucus barrier through inhibiting p‐ERK and Notch signaling



TNBS-induced colonic tissues

Reduce the levels of p38 and p-AKT proteins


Compound sophorae decoction

DSS‑induced colonic tissues

Suppress the activation of STAT3


Huangkui Lianchang decoction

DSS-induced Colon Tissue

Decrease the IκBα and p-IκBα levels


Warming yang and drying dampness category

Modified ZenWu decoction

DSS-induced colonic tissues

Lessen the degradation of IκBα


Ping weisan

DSS-induced colon tissues

Reduce phosphorylation of IκBα



Reduce phosphorylation of IκBα


Astringent category

Zhenrenyangzang decoction

TNBS-induced colon tissues

Attenuate the protein expression of IκB-α subunit and phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK)