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Table 2 Indirect regulatory efficacy of Chinese medicines on NF-κB pathway

From: Targeting NF-κB pathway for treating ulcerative colitis: comprehensive regulatory characteristics of Chinese medicines

ClassificationsChinese medicinesModelsMechanismsReferences
Heat-clearing and dampness-drying medicineCasticinRAW264.7Down-regulate the phosphorylation of AKT, thus down-regulate the phosphate kinase activity of IKKα/β, thereby failing to phosphorylate IκBα[44]
BaicalinDSS-induced colon tissueReduce the protein levels of p-IκB-α, whereas IκB-α protein expression is increased[45]
UC patientsIncrease p-STAT6/STAT6 ratio, but decrease ratios of p-STAT4/STAT4[46]
WogoninCaco-2 cellsDecrease phosphorylation and degradation of IκB; inhibit the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and TAK1[47]
WogonosideDSS-induced colon tissuesInhibit phosphorylated IκBα[48]
AOM/DSS-induced tumor tissuesDecrease the phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα, inhibit NF-κB activation via PI3K/Akt pathway[49]
THP-1 cellsInhibit phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα[49]
BerberineColonic macrophagesInhibit ERK1/2, p38, and JNK activation; inhibit IκB degradation[50]
Colonic epithelial cellsDecrease IκB degradation and ERK1/2 and p38 activation[50]
Berberine hydrochlorideDSS-induced colonic tissuesSuppress the expressions of phosphorylation of STAT3; inhibit the activation of IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB[54, 55]
ApocyninDSS-induced tissuesReduce the activation of STAT3[56]
SM934DSS-induced colon tissueDecrease phosphorylation of IκB; abrogate the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by DSS[61]
Interior-warming and drying dampness medicineAesculinRAW264.7 cellsSuppress the phosphorylation of IκBα[65]
Total triterpenoids of Chaenomeles speciosaDSS-induced colon tissueDown-regulate the protein expressions of cytosol PPARγ, tissue p-IKKβ and p-IκBα, decrease the p-IKKβ/IKKβ and p-IκBα/IκBα ratios, up-regulate the protein expressions of nucleus PPARγ, tissue SIRT1[66]
CardamoninRAW264.7 cellsInhibit phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; inhibit p38 phosphorylation[67]
3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acidTNBS-induced colon tissuesDecrease the change of IκBα expression in the nucleus[70]
Wu Zhu YuDSS-induced colonic tissuesDown-regulated the increased phosphorylation levels of IκB[71]
CloveDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce the expressions of p-IκB-α[73]
RAW264.7 macrophagesDecrease the expressions of p-IκB-α[73]
Zanthoxylum bungeanumDSS-induced colon tissueInhibit IκBα phosphorylation levels; suppress NF-κB due to inhibition of TLR4[74]
GalanginDSS-induced colon tissueSuppress protein expressions of p-Ikk-βα; increase the expression level of phosphorylation of IκBα in the cytoplasmic fraction[75]
Detoxificating and purgative medicineParthenolideDSS-induced colon tissueInhibit IkB protein phosphorylation; block the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα[76]
HCT116 cellsInhibit the phosphorylation of IkB-α[77]
ArctigeninDSS-induced colonic tissuesSuppress phosphorylation of IκBα[78]
Andrographolide derivative AL-1TNBS-induced colon tissuesAattenuate the expression levels of p-IκBα; increase the expression of PPAR-γ[79]
Andrographolide derivative CX-10DSS-induced colonic tissueReduce the expressions of p-IκBα; increase the expression of IκBα and suppresses the phosphorylated p38MAPK, ERK and JNK[80]
Brucea javanica oilDSS-induced colon tissuesInhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα[82]
Total flavonoids of Hedyotis diffusa WilldRAW 264.7 cellsSuppress IκB phosphorylation, and reduce the phosphorylation of MAPK[83]
Qing DaiRAW264.7 cellsInhibit IkBα degradation[86]
IndirubinDSS-induced colon tissuesReverse DSS-mediated up-regulation of p-IκBα and p-IKKα/β as well as down-regulation of IκBα and IKKα/β[87]
DandelionDSS-induced NCM460 cellDecrease the phosphorylation of Akt[88]
Rhubarb-type anthraquinonesHT-29 cellsEmodin up-regulating the expression of IκB[92]
MacrophagesChrysophanol inhibit IκBα degradation[93]
Gallic acidDSS-induced colon tissueAttenuate the activation and nuclear accumulation of p-STAT3 (Y705); prevent the degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB[94]
AllicinDSS-induced colonic mucosaInhibit activation and nuclear accumulation of STAT3; prevent the inhibition of protein IκB degradation[95]
BergeninRAW264.7 cellsActivate PPARγ, leading to increased expression of SIRT1[97]
Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) MeisnRAW264.7 cellsInhibit IκB phosphorylation[98]
Chlorogenic acidDSS-induced Colon MucosaReduce the phosphorylation level of IκB; improve the expression of ERK1/2, p-ERK, p38, p-p38, JNK, and pJNK proteins of the MAPK/ERK/JNK pathway[99]
Blood-activating medicineLiriodendrinDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce in phosphorylation of Akt; Block the phosphorylation of IκBα[101]
RAW264.7 macrophagesReduce the phosphorylation of IκBα[101]
ShikoninDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce the expression of pSTAT-3[102]
TetramethylpyrazineOXZ-induced colitis mucosaRestore PPAR-γ expression; reverse increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation[103]
(2)-epigallocatechin-3-gallateIEC-6 cellsInhibit the activation of IκB kinase[106]
CurcuminDSS-induced colonic tissueInhibit the activating signals of p38MAPK[112]
Qi-regulating medicineNorisoboldineDSS-induced colon tissuesRepress the phosphorylations of p38MAPK and ERK[113]
Tonifying medicineEclipta ProstrataHT-29 cellsReduce the degradation of IκB[115]
Astragaloside IVCCD‑18Co cellsInhibit the phosphorylation of IκB[117]
Licochalcone ADSS-induced colonic tissuesReverse the increased expression of IKKα and p-IκB[118]
The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.AOM/DSS-induced colon tissueAttenuate inflammation, tumor development and progression by down-regulation of expression of STAT3[122]
Lentinus edodes β-glucansDSS-induced colon tissuesModify p38MAPK and ERK1/2, and then phosphorylating PPARγ, which negatively regulates activation of NF-κB[124]
Mango polyphenolicsDSS-induced intestinal mucosaAttenuate the levels of inflammatory markers via suppression of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, in part through up-regulation of miRNA-126[125]
Astringent medicineUrsolic acidMacrophagesInhibit the phosphorylation of IKKβ and IκBα; suppress MAPK signaling pathways[129]
Rubus coreanusRAW264.7 macrophagesBlock the IκBα phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; suppression of MAPK activation[130]
OstholeDSS-induced colonic tissueReduce the expression of p-IκBα and increase IκBα expression[132]
RAW 264.7 cellsReduce the phosphorylation of the MAPK/p38 protein; Facilitate a full recovery of the degradated IκBα protein[132]
Tonifying Qi and activating blood categoryShen Ling Bai Zhu SanDSS-induced colonic tissueMAPK and NF-κB pathways share crosstalk[133]
Tou Nong SanTNBS-induced colon tissueInhibit p65 mainly by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IKKβ and thus the degradation of IB[134]
Heat-clearing and drying dampness categoryGegenqinlian decoctionDSS-induced colonic tissuesDecrease the P-IκB[139]
RAW 264.7 cellsInhibit the degradation of IκB[139]
Jianpi Qingchang decoctionDSS‑induced colon tissueIncrease the expression of IκB[140]
Qing Hua Chang YinDSS‑induced colon tissueInhibit the expression of the phosphorylation of IκB[143]
Caco-2 cellsSuppress the phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3[144]
QingBai decoctionDSS-induced colon tissueStrengthen mucus barrier through inhibiting p‐ERK and Notch signaling[145]
Chang-An-ShuanTNBS-induced colonic tissuesReduce the levels of p38 and p-AKT proteins[146]
Compound sophorae decoctionDSS‑induced colonic tissuesSuppress the activation of STAT3[149]
Huangkui Lianchang decoctionDSS-induced Colon TissueDecrease the IκBα and p-IκBα levels[150]
Warming yang and drying dampness categoryModified ZenWu decoctionDSS-induced colonic tissuesLessen the degradation of IκBα[154]
Ping weisanDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce phosphorylation of IκBα[155]
RAW264.7cellsReduce phosphorylation of IκBα[155]
Astringent categoryZhenrenyangzang decoctionTNBS-induced colon tissuesAttenuate the protein expression of IκB-α subunit and phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK)[156]