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Table 1 Research progress on geniposide in the treatment of brain diseases

From: The emerging possibility of the use of geniposide in the treatment of cerebral diseases: a review

Disease Animal/Cell model Dosage Target/Pathways/Mechanism References
Cerebral ischaemia tMCAO 25–150 mg/kg GluN2A/AKT/ERK signalling pathways (+) [37]
  Permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusions 50–100 mg/kg NF-κB/iNOS/TNF-α/IL-6 (−) [38]
  MCAO 15–60 mg/kg inflammatory factors and NF-κB (−) [39]
  I/R 100 mg/kg AKT/mTOR signalling pathways (+) [45]
  OGD/R 6–12 μg/mL NLRP3 (−) [49]
  OGD 12.5–50 μg/mL inflammatory factors/NF-κB (−) [39]
  OGD 100–300 μM PI3K/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin pathways (+) [53]
  OGD 33.2 μg/mL ERK1/2 signalling pathways/proinflammatory cytokines (−) [54]
  Inflammatory injury induced by microglia 12.5–50 µg/mL 5-LOX/CysLTs inflammatory pathway (−) [55]
  OGD 31.25–500 µg/mL CHOP/Beclin 1 (−) [56]
Alzheimer's disease APP/PS1 50 mg/kg CcO (+)ROS/MDA (−) [63]
  APP/PS1 50 mg/kg mTOR signalling pathway (−) [64]
  APP/PS1 5–20 mg/kg Akt/GSK-3β/tau (+) [65]
  APP/PS1 12.5–50 mg/kg MAPK signalling pathway (−) [66]
  APP/PS1 12.5–50 mg/kg cytochrome c oxidase (+) [67]
  STZ 5–20 mg/kg BACE1/IDE (+)ADAM10 (−) [68]
  STZ 50 μM GSK3β (−) [69]
  STZ 12.5–25 mg/kg Aβ1-42 (−) [70]
  Primary cultured cortical neurons 10 µM Akt/GSK-3β/tau (+) [65]
  Primary cultured cortical neurons 10 µM ADAM10/A-1-42 (−) [68]
  Primary cultured cortical neurons 2.5–10 µM AChE (−) [66]
  Primary cultured cortical neurons 10 µM HRD1 (+) [71]
  Primary cultured cortical neurons 0.01–20 µM leptin (+) [72]
  Primary cultured cortical neurons 10 µM JAK2/STAT3 (−) [73]
  PC12 cells 50 µmol/L PI3K (+) [81]
  PC12 cells 25–100 mg/L p90RSK (+) [82]
Depression RRS 50–100 mg/kg GLP-1R/AKT (+) [86]
  CUMS 25–100 mg/kg HPA axis (−) [87]
  STZ 50–100 mg/kg TrkB/BDNF (+) [88]
  HDF in combined with CORT 100 mg/kg CREB (+) [89]
  Lipopolysaccharide 100 mg/kg NF-κB/IDO (−) [90]
Others Maximal electric shock (50 mA, 50 Hz, 1 s) 5–20 mg/kg PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β (+) [91]
  1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine 100 mg/kg Caspase 3/Bcl-2 (−)Bax (+) [92]
  1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/neuroblastoma cell lines SHSY5Y 100 mg/kg LAMP2A/α-synuclein(+) [93]
  1. tMCAO: transient middle cerebral artery occlusion; MCAO: middle cerebral artery occlusion; I/R: ischaemia/reperfusion; OGD: oxygen–glucose deprivation; STZ: streptozotocin; RRS: repeated restraint stress; CUMS: chronic unpredictable mild stress; CORT: corticosterone