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Table 3 Compounds isolated from D. superbus and D. chinensis

From: Dianthi herba: a comprehensive review of its botany, traditional use, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

Classification No Compounds Source Refs
Saponins 1 3-O-β-d-Glucopyranosylolean-9(11),12-diene-23,28-dioicacid28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside D. superbus [11]
  2 3-O-β-d-Glucopyranosylolean-11,13(18)-diene-23,28-dioicacid28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside D. superbus [11, 13]
  3 3-O-β-d-Glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-d-6-O-((3S)-3-hydroxyl-3- methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1 → 6)]-β-d-glucopyranoside D. superbus [12]
  4 3-O-β-d-Glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-d-Glucopyranosyl(1 → 3)][β-d-6-O-((3S)-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1 → 6)]-d-glucopyranoside D. superbus [12]
  5 3-O-α-l-Arabinopyranosyl-3β,16α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-[β-d-Glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-d-glucopyranoside D. superbus [12]
  6 Asiatic acid D. superbus [14]
  7 Dianchinenoside A D. chinensis [15]
  8 Dianchinenoside B D. chinensis [15]
  9 Dianchinenoside C D. chinensis [17]
  10 Dianchinenoside D D. chinensis [17]
  11 Dianchinenoside E D. chinensis [16]
  12 Dianchinenoside F D. chinensis [16]
  13 Dianchinenoside G D. chinensis [16]
  14 Dianchinenoside H D. chinensis [16]
  15 3-O-α-l-Arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-β-d-Glucopyranosyl(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside D. chinensis [24]
  16 Madecassic acid D. superbus [19]
  17 Sterculin A D. superbus [18]
  18 (24R)-Cycloart-25-ene-3β,24-diol D. superbus [18]
  19 (24S)-Cycloart-25-ene-3β,24-diol D. superbus [18]
  20 β-Spinasterol D. superbus [18]
  21 Stigmast-7-en-3β-ol D. superbus [18]
  22 β-Sitosterol glucoside D. superbus [38]
  23 Hainanenside D. superbus [20]
  24 3-O-β-d-Glucopyranosyl olean-11, 13 (18)-diene-23, 28-dioic acid D. superbus [20]
  25 Quillaic acid D. superbus [21]
Flavonoids 26 Quercetin-3-O-glucoside D. superbus [22]
  27 Quercetin-7-O-glucoside D. superbus [27]
  28 Isoorientin D. superbus [23]
  29 Orientin D. superbus [23]
  30 5-Hydroxy-7,5′,4′-trimethoxyflavanone D. superbus [18]
  31 5,3′-Dihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavanone D. superbus [18]
  32 5,4′-Dihydroxy-7,3′-dimethoxyflavanone D. superbus [18]
  33 Isoorientin-2″-O-glucoside D. chinensis [24]
  34 Chrysoeriol-7-O-glucoside D. chinensis [24]
  35 Isovitexin-2″-O-glucoside D. chinensis [24]
  36 Diosmetin-7-O(2″,6″-di-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside D. superbus [28, 42]
  37 Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside D. superbus [30]
  38 Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside D. superbus [30]
  39 Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-rhamnoside D. superbus [30]
  40 Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside-glucoside 7-O-rhamnoside D. superbus [30]
  41 Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside 7-O-rhamnoside D. superbus [30]
  42 Luteolin D. superbus D. chinensis [23, 25, 29]
  43 3,5,7-Trihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxylflavone D. superbus [26]
  44 Kaempferol D. superbus [26]
  45 Quercetrin D. superbus [26]
  46 Tricin D. superbus [31]
  47 Diosmetin D. superbus [31]
  48 5-Hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxydihydroflavone D. superbus [20]
Peptides 49 Dianthin A D. superbus [33]
  50 Dianthin B D. superbus [33]
  51 Dianthin C D. superbus [34]
  52 Dianthin D D. superbus [34]
  53 Dianthin E D. superbus [34]
  54 Dianthin F D. superbus [34]
  55 Dianthin G D. superbus [35]
  56 Dianthin H D. superbus [35]
  57 Dianthin I D. chinensis [37, 45]
  58 Pseudostellarin A D. chinensis [37, 45]
  59 Heterophyllin J D. chinensis [37, 45]
  60 4-Methoxydianthramide B D. superbus [34]
  61 Cyclo-(l-N-methyl Glu-l-N-methyl Glu D. chinensis [36]
  62 Cyclo-(l-methyl Glu-ester-l-methyl Glu ester D. chinensis [36]
  63 Cyclo-(l-methyl Glu-ester-l-Glu) D. chinensis [36]
  64 Cyclo-(l-Glu-l-Glu) D. chinensis [36]
  65 Tyrocidine B D. superbus [30]
Anthraquinones 66 Emodin D. superbus [19, 25, 38, 40]
  67 Physcion D. superbus [38, 39]
  68 Emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside D. superbus [25, 38]
  69 Physcion-8-O-β-d-glucoside D. superbus [20]
  70 MelrubiellinA D. superbus [21]
  71 MelrubiellinB D. superbus [21]
Phenolic acids 72 p-Hydroxybenzoic acid D. superbus [19, 41]
  73 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid D. superbus [19]
  74 Methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate D. superbus [38]
  75 Methyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionate D. superbus [38]
  76 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid D. superbus [42]
  77 Vanillic acid D. superbus [42]
  78 4-Hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid D. superbus [42]
  79 Hydroferulic acid D. superbus [42]
  80 Methyl hydroferulate D. superbus [42]
  81 (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) D. superbus [42]
  82 Trans-p-coumaric acid D. superbus [26]
  83 Catechol D. superbus [21]
  84 Salicylic acid D. superbus [21]
  85 β⁃hydroxypropiovanillone D. superbus [31]
  86 4-Methoxyphenylacetic acid D. superbus [20]
Amides 87 Patriscabratine D. superbus [19]
  88 N-p-coumarylanthranilic acid D. superbus [19]
  89 Methoxydianthramide S D. superbus [26]
  90 2-[(2,4-Dihydroxybenzoyl) amino]-4-methoxy-benzoic acid D. superbus [26]
  91 Aurantiamide D. superbus [21]
  92 Aurantiamide acetate D. superbus [31]
Phenylpropanoids 93 4-Methoxy-benzeneacetic acid D. superbus [42]
  94 Scopoletin D. superbus [26]
  95 6-Methoxy-hydroxycoumarin D. superbus [26]
  96 Epipinoresinol D. superbus [21]
  97 Pinoresinol D. superbus [21]
  98 Prinsepiol D. superbus [21]
  99 Medioresinol D. superbus [31]
  100 Syringaresinol D. superbus [31]
  101 Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol D. superbus [31]
Others 102 Hydoxydihydrobovolide D. superbus [18]
  103 Cis-3-hexen-1-ol D. superbus [43]
  104 Phenylethane D. superbus [43]
  105 N-hexanol D. superbus [43]
  106 Sorbic Acid D. superbus [43]
  107 Benzaldehyde D. superbus [43]
  108 N-heptanol D. superbus [43]
  109 1-Octen-3-ol D. superbus [43]
  110 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one D. superbus [43]
  111 2-Methyl-2-hepten-6-ol D. superbus [43]
  112 Phenylacetaldehyde D. superbus [43]
  113 p-tolualdehyde D. superbus [43]
  114 N-octanol D. superbus [43]
  115 (E, E)-3,5-octadien-2-one D. superbus [43]
  116 Linalool D. superbus [43]
  117 1-Acetyl-2-methylcyclopentene D. superbus [43]
  118 N-nonanal D. superbus [43]
  119 N-nonanol D. superbus [43]
  120 decanal D. superbus [43]
  121 n-decanol D. superbus [43]
  122 α-terpineol D. superbus [43]
  123 α-cyclocitral D. superbus [43]
  124 Cis-chrysanthenylacetate D. superbus [43]
  125 (E)-anethole D. superbus [43]
  126 α-Damascenone D. superbus [43]
  127 Tetrahydrogeranyl acetone D. superbus [43]
  128 Geranyl acetone D. superbus [43]
  129 2,6,10-trimethyltetradecane D. superbus [43]
  130 β-Ionone D. superbus [43]
  131 3,7,11-Trimethyl-1-dodecanol D. superbus [43]
  132 2-Methylhexadecan-1-ol D. superbus [43]
  133 6,10,14-Trimethyl-2-pentadecanone D. superbus [43]
  134 Farnesy lacetone D. superbus [43]
  135 Palmitic acid D. superbus [43]
  136 Cis-phytol D. superbus [43]
  137 (E)-4-Methoxycinnamic acid D. superbus [42]
  138 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol D. superbus [42]
  139 Loliolide D. superbus [26]
  140 1-Monopalmitin D. superbus [26]
  141 2,4-Dimethylhexane D. superbus [44]
  142 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol D. superbus [44]
  143 Methyl 12-methyltridecanoate D. superbus [44]
  144 Tetradecane D. superbus [44]
  145 Methyl 13-methylpentadecanoate D. superbus [44]
  146 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-1-hexadecadiene-3-ol D. superbus [44]
  147 16-methylheptadecanoic acid methyl ester D. superbus [44]
  148 2,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde D. superbus [44]
  149 2,4,6-trimethyloctane D. superbus [44]
  150 2-Methyldecane D. superbus [44]
  151 2,6,11-trimethyldodecane D. superbus [44]
  152 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol D. superbus [44]
  153 Methyl-3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate D. superbus [44]
  154 (Z)-9-Octadecenylamide D. superbus [44]
  155 2,4-Nondiene D. superbus [44]
  156 7,9-Di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro (4,5) deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione D. superbus [44]
  157 Methyl palmitate D. superbus [44]
  158 11,13-dimethyl-12-tetradecene-1-ol acetate D. superbus [44]
  159 (R)-4-[(R, E)-3-hydroxy-1-butenyl]-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one D. superbus [44]
  160 1-Hydroxy-4-keto-2-ionone D. superbus [44]
  161 Dibutyl phthalate D. superbus [44]
  162 4-Methyl-1-undecanone D. superbus [44]
  163 3, 3-Dimethylhexane D. superbus [44]
  164 2-Ethyl-1-heptanol D. superbus [44]
  165 1-Pentanol D. superbus [44]
  166 2-n-Pentylfuran D. superbus [44]
  167 4-Methyldocosane D. superbus [44]
  168 1-Hexadecene D. superbus [44]
  169 Cis-7-decene aldehyde D. superbus [44]
  170 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-benzoquinone D. superbus [44]
  171 Dimethyl azelaite D. superbus [44]
  172 Phenanthrene D. superbus [44]
  173 2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-dodecanone D. superbus [44]
  174 2-Sec-butyl Cyclopentanone D. superbus [44]
  175 3,4-Epoxytetrahydrofuran D. superbus [44]
  176 2-Oxo-1-(4-bromo-n-butyl) piperidine D. superbus [44]
  177 2-Hexyl-1-octanol D. superbus [44]
  178 Methyl hexadecanoate D. superbus [44]
  179 1-Octacosanol D. superbus [44]
  180 l-Dianose D. chinensis [44]
  181 Dehydrololiolide D. superbus [21]
  182 Dehydrovomifoliol D. superbus [21]
  183 Succinic acid D. superbus [21]
  184 Parthenin D. superbus [31]
  185 Vomifoliol D. superbus [31]
  186 Zhebeiresinol D. superbus [31]
  187 Lariciresinol D. superbus [31]
  188 Ixerol B D. superbus [31]
  189 Cucumegastigmanes I D. superbus [31]
  190 (6z, 9z)-heptadecadiene D. superbus [31]
  191 3, 6, 9-nonadecatriene D. superbus [21]
  192 5-Hydroxyl-3,4-dimethy-5-pentyl-2(5H)-furanone D. superbus [20]
  193 1-Glycerol palmitate D. superbus [20]
  194 3-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acid sodium salt D. superbus [20]