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Table 4 The pharmaceutical effects of Dianthi

From: Dianthi herba: a comprehensive review of its botany, traditional use, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

Pharmaceutical effects Compounds/extracts Doses Models (in vivo) Models (in vitro) Results/mechanism Refs
Anti-tumor Asiatic acid 55.4, 48.9, 55.3, 58.8 μg/mL SW480, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-MEL-2, HCT116, T98G, SSMC-7721, SK-HEP-1, and Bel-7402 cell Activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which leads to apoptosis; Regulating Pdcd4 through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signal transduction pathway to inhibit proliferation, migration and induced apoptosis of cancer cells; Induce apoptosis by inhibiting autophagy [14, 121,122,123]
Ethanol extract 180 μg/mL Hep G2 cell Downregulating the expression of bcl-xl and bcl-2, induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells [56]
Ethanol extract 40, 60 μg/mL SCC-15 and YD-15 oral cancer cells Inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both cell lines by decreasing the expression of Sp1 and Mcl-1 [57]
Petroleum ether extract 100 mg/L Hela, Smmc-7721, Hep G2, SK-HEP1, A549, and Bel-7402 cell By regulating the expression of tumor-related factors and genes, changing the characteristics of mitochondria, affecting the cell cycle, inducing the differentiation of tumor cells, changing the calcium pump on the tumor membrane, reducing the activity of some enzymes needed for cell growth, and inhibiting the growth of tumor cells [44, 124, 125]
Antioxidant Dunhuang Yifang Dianthi Herba decoction 5, 10, 20 g/kg Kidney calcium oxalate calculus in rats By activating the Nrf2/ARE signal pathway and the expression of its downstream target genes NQO1 and SOD, it can enhance the antioxidation and further inhibit the formation of calcium oxalate stones [58]
Total flavonoids 0.065, 0.046 g/L Exert antioxidant activity by directly scavenging free radicals, inhibiting oxidase and chelating metal ions [60]
Dianthi Herba decoction 3.13 mg/mL Wistar rat Decreasing the concentration of serum Ca2 + and up-regulate the expression of functional proteins related to Nrf2/NQO1 pathway, and improve renal oxidative stress injury [61]
Ethyl acetate extract 1.25 mg/mL Significantly inhibiting the production of DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical [62]
Antiviral Quercetin 3-glucoside 4.93, 6.43, 9.94, 8.3, and 7.1 μg/mL Influenza A/PR/8/34, A/Victoria/3/75, A/WS/33, B/Maryland/1/59, and B/Lee/40 viruses strains Inhibiting virus-induced ROS production and AVO formation, block virus replication [22]
Quercetin-7-O-glucoside 3.1, 6.61, 8.19, and 5.17 μg/mL Influenza A/PR/8/34, A/Vic/3/75, B/Lee/40, and B/Maryland/1/59 virus strains Inhibiting virus-induced ROS and vesicle organelle formation, block viral RNA polymerase PB2, and inhibit viral RNA replication [27]
Anti-inflammatory Ethanolic extract 200 mg/kg Ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma Reducing airway inflammation induced by OVA in asthmatic mice by down-regulating the expression of iNOS [65]
Dichloromethane-soluble fraction 50 μg/mL Human alloreactive T cell Blocking Akt phosphorylation of T cells; Prevent Foxp3 transcription [67]
Lipophilic organic acids and intermediate lipophilic organic acids from aqueous extracts 20 μg/mL - Human B cell line,
Human myeloma cells
Markedly suppressed IgE production [68]
Uterine excitatory activity Fruit extracts of D. superbus 8.5, 17, and 34 g/kg Early pregnancy in mice Reducing the level of progesterone and block the normal development of decidua [75]
Methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate 200 μg/kg Mouse (pregnancy) Stimulating the muscle strips of pregnant uterus and cooperate with oxytocin to enhance the intensity and amplitude of spontaneous contraction of pregnant uterus [38]
Antimicrobial Dianthi Herba decoction 2 mg/mL Chlamydia trachomatis The volume and quantity of Chlamydia inclusions decreased gradually [78]
Cyclopolypeptide 6 µg/mL Candida albicans Exhibited potent activity against the pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans, with a MIC concentration of 6 µ g/mL [79]
Ethanolic extract;
Water extract
6.25–12.5 mg/mL;
12.5–50 mg/mL
Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus cereus, and Vibrio cholerae It has significant inhibitory activity against three bacteria, and the MIC range is 6.25–12.5 mg/mL and 12.5–50 mg/mL respectively [96]