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Table 3 Summary of the studies on CRISPR-Cas9-mediated medicinal plant gene editing

From: CRISPR-Cas gene editing technology and its application prospect in medicinal plants

Species Target gene Gene description Cas9/sgRNA promoter Results Mutation frequency Refs.
Salvia miltiorrhiza SmCPS1 Committed diterpene synthase gene in tanshinone biosynthetic pathway CaMV 35S/AtU6-26 8 heterozygous and 3 homozygous hairy root mutants 11.5% and 30.8% for the homozygous and chimeric mutants [119]
Salvia miltiorrhiza SmRAS Rosmarinic acid synthase gene in phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway CaMV 35S/AtU6-26, OsU3 5 biallelic, 2 heterozygous and 1 homozygous hairy root mutants 50% [120]
Salvia miltiorrhiza SmLACs Laccase genes in phenolic acid and lignin biosynthetic pathway AtUBQ/AtU6 15 single-locus crispr lines and 14 dual-locus crispr lines 90.6% [121]
Salvia miltiorrhiza SmbZIP2 Basic leucine zipper transcription factor; negative regulator in phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway CaMV 35S/AtU6-26 SmbZIP2-deficient hairy roots 12% [122]
Dendrobium officinale C3H, C4H, 4CL, CCR, and IRX Involved in lignocellulose biosynthetic pathway MtHP, CVMV, MMV, PCISV, CaMV 35S /OsU3 DoLACs-deficient hairy roots 16.7%, 20%, 33.3%, 33.3% and 6.7% for C3H, C4H, 4CL, CCR and IRX [131]
Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile DOTFL1 Terminal flower 1 gene modulating flowering and inflorescence architecture Ubi/OsU3, OsU6a 13 homozygous mutant plants 10.1% [132]
Cannabis sativa CsPDS1 Phytoene desaturase gene; Marker CaMV 35S/AtU6 CsPDS1-deficient seedlings 2.5% and 51.6% for the homozygous and chimeric mutants [139]
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L. Boraginaceae) HSS Homospermidine synthase gene in PA biosynthetic pathway –/AtU6-26 HSS-deficient hairy roots   [145]
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) 4′OMT2 3′-hydroxyl-N-methylcoclaurine 4′-O-methyltransferase gene in BIAs biosynthetic pathway CaMV 35S /AtU6 4′OMT2-deficient mutant plants 85% [146]
Dioscorea zingiberensis Dzfps Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene CaMV 35S /OsU3 9 Dzfps-deficient mutant plants 60% [147]