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Table 2 Gene contents in the cp genomes of six Viola species

From: An integrated study of Violae Herba (Viola philippica) and five adulterants by morphology, chemical compositions and chloroplast genomes: insights into its certified plant origin

Group of genes Name of genes Amount
Ribosomal RNAs rrn16(× 2), rrn23(× 2), rrn4.5(× 2), rrn5(× 2) 8
Transfer RNAs trnA-UGC*(× 2), trnC-GCA, trnD-GUC, trnE-UUC, trnF-GAA, trnG-GCC, trnG-UCC*, trnH-GUG, trnI-CAU(× 2), trnI-GAU*(× 2), trnK-UUU*, trnL-CAA(× 2), trnL-UAA*,trnL-UAG, trnfM-CAU, trnM-CAU, trnN-GUU(× 2), trnP-UGG, trnQ-UUG, trnR-ACG(× 2), trnR-UCU, trnS-GCU, trnS-GGA, trnS-UGA, trnT-GGU, trnT-UGU, trnV-GAC(× 2), trnV-UAC*, trnW-CCA, trnY-GUA 37
Small ribosomal subunit (SSU) rps2, rps3, rps4, rps7(× 2), rps8, rps11, rps12**(× 2), rps14, rps15, rps18, rps19 13
Large ribosomal subunit (LSU) rpl2*(× 2), rpl14, rpl16*, rpl20, rpl22, rpl23(× 2), rpl33, rpl36 10
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1*, rpoC2 4
Subunits of ATP synthase atpA, atpB,atpE, atpF*, atpH, atpI 6
Subunits of NADH dehydrogenase ndhA*, ndhB*(× 2), ndhC, ndhD, ndhE, ndhF, ndhG, ndhH, ndhI, ndhJ, ndhK 12
Cytochrome b/f complex petA, petB*, petD*, petG, petL, petN 6
Subunits of photosystem I psaA, psaB, psaC, psaI, psaJ 5
Assembly/Stability of photosystem I ycf3**, ycf4 2
Subunits of photosystem II psbA, psbB, psbC, psbD, psbE, psbF, psbH, psbI, psbJ, psbK, psbL, psbM, psbN, psbT, psbZ 15
Large subunit of Rubisco rbcL 1
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase accD 1
c-type cytochrome synthesis gene ccsA 1
Envelop membrane protein cemA 1
ATP-dependent protease clpP** 1
Maturase matK 1
Conserved open reading frames ycf1, ycf2(× 2), ycf15(× 2) 5
Pseudogenes Ψycf1, Ψrps19  
Total   129
  1. One and two asterisks (*) indicate one- and two-intron containing genes. Genes with two copies indicate by the (× 2) symbol. (Ψ) symbol indicates the pseudogene. The rps12 gene is a trans-spliced gene