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Table 3 The variability and discrimination rates of cp genomes, specific and universal barcodes

From: An integrated study of Violae Herba (Viola philippica) and five adulterants by morphology, chemical compositions and chloroplast genomes: insights into its certified plant origin

No Markers Aligned length Polymorphic sites Parsimony informative sites (PICs) Mean K2P distance Discrimination rates by tree-based method
Numbers % Numbers %
  Complete cp genomes 136,352 4664 3.42% 2175 1.60% 0.00824 100%
  Specific barcodes
1 trnH(GUG)-psbA 506 65 12.85% 30 5.93% 0.03880 100%
2 trnE(UUC)-trnT(GGU) 1155 118 10.22% 58 5.02% 0.02759 35.29%
3 psbZ-trnG(GCC) 1189 138 11.61% 55 4.63% 0.03028 64.71%
4 trnF(GAA)-ndhJ 977 157 16.07% 108 11.05% 0.04316 70.59%
5 petA-psbL 1580 129 8.16% 69 4.37% 0.03071 64.71%
6 ccsA-ndhD 300 46 15.33% 24 8.00% 0.04475 41.18%
7 ndhF-trnL(UAG) 1923 222 11.54% 93 4.84% 0.03428 47.06%
  Combination (1–2-3) 2850 321 11.26% 143 5.02% 0.03034 100%
  Universal barcodes
1 psbK-psbI 424 25 5.90% 17 4.01% 0.02121 41.18%
2 atpF-atpH 625 46 7.36% 15 2.40% 0.01793 47.06%
  Combination (1–2) 1049 71 6.77% 32 3.05% 0.01929 47.06%
  1. Discrimination rates (%) = [the number of species with bootstrap values more than 50% / the total number of species] × 100%