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Table 5 Top ten most commonly used CM pattern (zheng) for UC

From: Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a review

Name Therapeutic principle Number of subjects diagnosed as CM zhenga Frequency of reporting
Large intestine dampness-heat
(Da Chang Shi Re)
Clear heat and dampness, harmony qi and blood 23,031 517
Spleen-kidney yang deficiency
(Pi Shen Yang Xu)
Warm and tonify spleen and kidney 5585 192
Liver depression and spleen deficiency
(Gan Yu Pi Xu)
Sooth liver and strengthen spleen 3849 154
Spleen-stomach weakness
(Pi Wei Xu Ruo)
Tonify the spleen and stomach 2341 143
Spleen deficiency with dampness accumulation
(Pi Xu Shi Yun)
Tonify spleen and resolve dampness 2148 76
Qi stagnation and blood stasis
(Qi Zhi Xue Yu)
Regulate qi and activate blood 556 70
Dampness-heat due to spleen deficiency
(Pi Xu Shi Re)
Tonify spleen and promote dehumidification 3087 61
Cold and heat in complexity
(Han Re Cuo Za)
Clear heat and warm yang 2613 61
Internal obstruction of stagnant blood
(Yu Xue Nei Zu)
Activate blood and remove stasis 312 44
Deficiency of yin and blood
(Yin Xue Kui Xu)
Tonify yin and blood 120 44
  1. aThe caculation of this item is based on 616 clincial studies, not 895. Because among 895 clinical studies included CM pattern diagnosis, 616 trials included only one type of CM pattern for the inclusion of UC participants, while the remining 279 studies involed more than one type of CM patterns (e.g., for some studies, the UC participants were diagnosed as the combination of “Large intestine dampness-heat”, “Spleen-kidney yang deficiency” and “Spleen-stomach weakness”; for other studies, the subjects were diagnosed as the pattern of “Liver depression and spleen deficiency” or “Spleen-stomach weakness”, etc.). As the specific number of subjects for each pattern could not identified in these cases, we thereby excluded the 279 trials with complex patterns and caculated this item (number of subjects diagnosed as CM pattern) based on the 616 trials with single pattern