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Table 3 Components of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medicine used in the included studies

From: The efficacy and safety of combined chinese herbal medicine and western medicine therapy for COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Refences Treatments Components Western medicine Components
  Chinese herbal medicine    
Chen 2021
[39]
Lianhua Qingwen Capsule Weeping forsythia capsule (Lianqiao, Fructus Forsythiae), Honeysuckle bud and flower (Jinyinhua, Flos Lonicerae), Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae), Bitter apricot seed (Xingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gypsum (Shigao, Gypsum Fibrosum), Isatis root (Banlangen, Radix Isatidis), Male fern rhizome (Mianmaguanzhogn, Rhizoma Dryopteris Crassirhizomae), Heartleaf houttuynia herb (Yuxingcao, Herba Houttuyniae), Cablin patchouli herb (Guanghuoxiang, Herba Pogostemonis), Rhubarb root and rhizome (Dahuang, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei), Rose-boot (Hongjingtian, Herba Rhodiolae), Liquorice root (Gancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) Conventional antiviral drugs %1Recombinant human interferon α2b, 5 million IU/time, add 2 mL of sterilized water for injection, inh, bid
%1Lopinavir ritonavir tablets, po, bid
Chen 2020
[40]
Xuebijing Injection Chinese angelica (Danggui, Radix Angelicae Sinensis), Safflower (Honghua, Flos Carthami), Danshen root (Danshen, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), Sichuan lovage rhizome (Chuanxiong, Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Peony root (Chishao, Radix Paeoniae Rubra) Conventional antiviral drugs Recombinant human interferon α2b, Lopinavir, Ritonavir
Duan 2020
[41]
Jinhua Qinggan granules Honeysuckle bud and flower (Jinyinhua, Flos Lonicerae), Gypsum (Shigao, Gypsum Fibrosum), Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae), Bitter Apricot Seed (Kuxingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Baical Skullcap Root (Huangqin, Radix Scutellariae Baicalensis), Forsythia Fruit (Lianqiao, Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae), Thunberbg Fritillary Bulb (Zhebeimu, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii), Anemarrhena Rhizome (Zhimu, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae Aspheloidis), Great burdock achene (Niubangzi, Fructus Arctii), Sweet Wormwood (Qinghao, Artemisiae Apiaceae seu Annuae Herba), Field Mint (Bohe, Herba Menthae Haplocalycis), and Liquoric Root (Gancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) Conventional Western medicine Based on National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine jointly issued the ‘Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel
Coronavirus Pneumonia’ (Trial Version 5), including antiviral and antiviral Infection and other symptomatic treatment, 5 days as a course of treatment
Fu 2020a
[42]
Toujie Quwen granules Forsythia Fruit (Lianqiao, Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae) 30 g, Appendiculate Cremastra Pseudobulb (Shancigu, Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones) 20 g, Honeysuckle bud and flower (Jinyinhua, Flos Lonicerae) 15 g, Baical Skullcap Root (Huangqin, Radix Scutellariae Baicalensis) 10 g, Dyers Woad Leaf (Daqingye, Folium Isatidis) 10 g, Thorowax Root (Chaihu, Radix Bupleuri) 5 g, Sweet Wormwood (Qinghao, Artemisiae Apiaceae seu Annuae Herba) 10 g, Circada Moulting (Chantui, Periostracum Cicadae) 10 g, Hogfennel Root (Qianhu, Radix Peucedani) 5 g, Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb (Chuanbeimu, Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae) 10 g, Thunberbg Fritillary Bulb (Zhebeimu, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii) 10 g, Smoked Plum (Wumei, Fructus Mume) 30 g, Ningpo Figwort Root (Xuanshen, Radix Scrophulariae Ningpoensis) 10 g, Astragalus (Huangqi, Radix Astragali Membranacei)45 g, Poria (Fuling, Scierotium Poriae Cocos)30 g, and Pseudostellaria Root (Taizishen, Pseudostellariae Radix) 15 g Antiviral drugs Abidor tablets, po, tid; Moxifloxacin tablets, po, qd; Ambroxol tablets, po, tid
Fu 2020b
[43]
Toujie Quwen granules Forsythia Fruit (Lianqiao, Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae) 30 g, Appendiculate Cremastra Pseudobulb (Shancigu, Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones) 20 g, Honeysuckle bud and flower (Jinyinhua, Flos Lonicerae) 15 g, Baical Skullcap Root (Huangqin, Radix Scutellariae Baicalensis) 10 g, Dyers Woad Leaf (Daqingye, Folium Isatidis) 10 g, Thorowax Root (Chaihu, Radix Bupleuri) 5 g, Sweet Wormwood (Qinghao, Artemisiae Apiaceae seu Annuae Herba) 10 g, Circada Moulting (Chantui, Periostracum Cicadae) 10 g, Hogfennel Root (Qianhu, Radix Peucedani) 5 g, Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb (Chuanbeimu, Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae) 10 g, Thunberbg Fritillary Bulb (Zhebeimu, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii) 10 g, Smoked Plum (Wumei, Fructus Mume) 30 g, Ningpo Figwort Root (Xuanshen, Radix Scrophulariae Ningpoensis) 10 g, Astragalus (Huangqi, Radix Astragali Membranacei) 45 g, Poria (Fuling, Scierotium Poriae Cocos)30 g, and Pseudostellaria Root (Taizishen, Pseudostellariae Radix) 15 g Antiviral drugs Abidor tablets, po, tid; Ambroxol tablets, po, tid
He 2021
[44]
Buzhong Yiqi decoction Honey-scorched Astragalus (Huangqi, Radix Astragali seu Hedysari) 10 g, Panax ginseng (Renshen, Radix Ginseng) 3 g, Honey-fried liquorice root (Zhigancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) 5 g, Fried atractylodes (Baizhu, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) 3 g, Dried tangerine peel (Chenpi, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae) 3 g, Chinese angelica (Danggui, Radix Angelicae Sinensis) 3 g, Largetrifoliolious bugbane rhizome (Shengma, Rhizoma Cimicifugae) 3 g, Chinese thorowax root (Chiahu, Radix Bupleuri) 3 g Antiviral drugs Abidor tablets, 200 mg, po, tid
Hu 2021
[45]
Lianhua Qingwen capsules Forsythia Fruit (Lianqiao, Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae), Honeysuckle bud and flower (Jinyinhua, Flos Lonicerae), Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae), Bitter Apricot Seed (Kuxingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gypsum (Shigao, Gypsum Fibrosum), Indigowoad Root (Banlangen, Radix Isatidis), Male fern rhizome (Mianma Guanzhong, Rhizoma Dryopteris Crassirhizomae), Heartleaf houttuynia herb (Yuxingcao, Herba Houttuyniae), Cablin patchouli herb (Huoxiang, Herba Pogostemonis), Rhubarb Root and Rhizome (Dahuang, Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei), Rose-boot (Hongjingtian, Herba Rhodiolae), menthol, and Liquoric Root (Gancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) Routine treatment Oxygen therapy, antiviral medications and symptomatic therapies
Lin 2020
[46]
Xuanfeiqingre decoction Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae) 9 g, Bitter apricot seed (Xingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum) 12 g, Gypsum (Shigao, Gypsum Fibrosum) 30 g, Liquorice root (Gancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) 6 g, Peach seed (Taoren, Semen Persicae) 12 g, Winter melon kernels (Dongguaren, Benincasa hispida Cogn) 30 g, Reed rhizome (Lugen, Rhizoma Phragmitis) 30 g, Coix seed (Yiyiren, Semen Coicis) 30 g, Platycodon root (Jiegeng, Radix Platycodonis) 9 g, Ginger processed pinellia (Jiangbanxia, Rhizome Pinelliae Preparata) 12 g, Longstamen onion bulb (Xiebai, Bulbus Allii Macrostemonis) 12 g, Fruit of caoguo (Caoguo, Fructus Tsaoko) 6 g, Cablin patchouli herb (Huoxiang, Herba Pogostemonis) 10 g Conventional treatment in Western medicine α-interferon, Lopinavir/ritonavir tablets
Liu 2021
[47]
Lianhuaqingwen capsules, Pneumonia 2 defined formula Pneumonia 2 defined formula: Bitter apricot seed (Xingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae), Ginkgo seed (Baiguo, Semen Ginkgo), Earthworm (Dilong, Lumbricus), Pepperweed seed (Tinglizi, Semen Descurainiae), Chinese magnoliavine fruit (Wuweizi, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis), Pinellia tuber (Banxia, Rhizoma Pinelliae), Liquorice root (Gancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae), Perilla fruit (Zisuzi, Fructus Perillae), White mulberry root-bark (Sang, Baipi, Cortex Mori), Common coltsfoot flower (Kuandonghau, Flos Farfarae) Antiviral drugs Abidord tablets, Oseltamivir
Liu 2021
[48]
Huashi Baidu formula Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae) 6 g, Bitter apricot seed (Xingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum) 9 g, Gypsum (Shigao, Gypsum Fibrosum) 15 g, Liquorice root (Gancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) 3 g, Cablin patchouli herb (Guanghuoxiang, Herba Pogostemonis) 10 g, Officinal magnolia bark (Houpu, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) 10 g, Atractylodes rhizome (Cangzhu, Rhizoma Atractylodis) 15 g, Fruit of caoguo (Caoguo, Fructus Tsaoko) 10 g, Processed pinellia tuber (Fabanxia, Rhizoma Pinelliae Preparatum) 9 g, Indian bread (Fuling, Poria) 15 g, Rhubarb root and rhizome (Dahuang, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) 5 g, Milkvetch root (Huangqi, Radix Astragali seu Hedysari) 10 g, Pepperweed seed (Tinglizi, Semen Descurainiae) 10 g, Peony root (Chishao, Radix Paeoniae Rubra) 10 g Western medicine treatment Tocilizumab, oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, plasma therapy for convalescent patients
Wang 2020
[49]
Viable Bifidobacterium Tablets combined with Sanren decoction Sanren decoction: Processed pinellia tuber (Fabanxia, Rhizoma Pinelliae Preparatum) 9 g, Lophatherum herb (Danzhuye, Herba Lophatheri) 24 g, Ricepaperplant pith (Tongcao, Medulla Tetrapanacis) 3 g, Talc (Huashi, Talcum) 18 g, Bitter apricot seed (Xingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum) 12 g, Coix seed (Yiyiren, Semen Coicis) 45 g, Chinese thorowax root (Chaihu, Radix Bupleuri) 6 g, Baical skullcap root (Huangqin, Radix Scutellariae) 24 g, Heterophylly falsestarwort root (Taizishen, Radix Pseudostellariae) 24 g, Turmeric root tuber (Yujin, Radix Curcumae) 24 g, Indian bread (Fuling, Poria) 45 g, Finger citron (Foshou, Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis) 24 g, Reed rhizome (Lugen, Rhizoma Phragmitis) 45 g Antiviral drugs Oseltamivir capsules, Ambroxol tablets
Wang 2021
[50]
Qingfei Paidu decoction Honey-fried liquorice root (Zhigancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) 6 g, Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae) 9 g, Gypsum (Shengshigao, Gypsum Fibrosum) 15 ~ 30 g, Bitter apricot seed (Xingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Grifola (Zhuling, Polyporus Umbellatus) 9 g, Cassia twig (Guizhi, Ramulus Cinnamomi) 9 g, Largehead atractylodes rhizome (Baizhu, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) 9 g, Oriental waterplantain rhizome (Zexie, Rhizoma Alismatis) 9 g, Chinese thorowax root (Chaihu, Radix Bupleuri) 16 g, Indian bread (Fuling, Poria) 15 g, Baical skullcap root (Huangqin, Radix Scutellariae) 6 g, Blackberry lily rhizome (Shegan, Rhizoma Belamcandae) 9 g, Ginger processed pinellia (Jiangbanxia, Rhizome Pinelliae Preparata) 9 g, Tatarian Aster Root (Ziyuan,
Aster tataricus) 9 g, Fresh ginger (Shengjiang, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens) 9 g, Cablin patchouli herb (Huoxiang, Herba Pogostemonis) 9 g, Immature orange fruit (Zhishi, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus) 6 g, Dried tangerine peel (Chenpi, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae) 6 g, Manchurian wildginger (Xixin, Herba Asari) 6 g, Common yam rhizome (Shanyao, Rhizoma Dioscoreae) 12 g, Common coltsfoot flower (Kuandonghua, Flos Farfarae) 9 g
Routine treatment Moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets, Arbidol hydrochloride dispersible tablets
Wang 2020a
[51]
Chinese medicinal formulae Buzhongyiqi supplemented formula: Milkvetch root (Huangqi, Radix Astragali seu Hedysari) 30 g, Ginseng (Renshen, Radix Ginseng) 15 g, Liquorice root (Gancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) 15 g, Largehead atractylodes rhizome (Baizhu, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) 10 g, Dried tangerine peel (Chenpi, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae) 6 g, Chinese angelica (Danggui, Radix Angelicae Sinensis) 10 g, Chinese date (Dazao, Fructus Jujubae) 6 pieces, Fresh ginger (Shengjiang, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens) 9 pieces, Chinese thorowax root (Chaihu, Radix Bupleuri) 12 g, Largetrifoliolious bugbane rhizome (Shengma, Rhizoma Cimicifugae) 6 g
Huhuang Paidu supplemented formula: Golden thread (Huanglian, Rhizoma Coptidis) 20 g, Rhubarb root and rhizome (Shengdahuang, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) 10 g, Baical skullcap root (Shenghuangqin, Radix Scutellariae) 10 g, Tatarian Aster Root (Ziyuan, Aster tataricus) 10 g, Heartleaf houttuynia herb (Yuxingcao, Herba Houttuyniae) 10 g, Dandelion (Pugongying, Herba Taraxaci) 10 g, Giant knotweed rhizome (Huzhang, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati) 10 g, Milkvetch root (Huangqi, Radix Astragali seu Hedysari) 20 g
Baimu Qingre Jiedu formula: Kudzuvine root (Gegen, Radix Puerariae) 15 g, Dahurian angelica root (Baizhi, Radix Angelicae Dahuricae) 12 g, Biond magnolia flower-bud (Xinyi, Flos Magnoliae) 9 g, Isatis root (Banlangen, Radix Isatidis) 30 g, Weeping forsythia capsule (Lianqiao, Fructus Forsythiae) 15 g, Thunberbg fritillary bulb (Zhebeimu, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii) 12 g
Herbal fumigating ointment: Golden thread (Huanglian, Rhizoma Coptidis) 20 g, Rhubarb root and rhizome (Dahuang, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) 10 g, Baical skullcap root (Huangqin, Radix Scutellariae) 10 g, Atractylodes rhizome (Cangzhu, Rhizoma Atractylodis) 10 g, Tatarian Aster Root (Ziyuan, Aster tataricus) 10 g, Heartleaf houttuynia herb (Yuxingcao, Herba Houttuyniae) 10 g, Dandelion (Pugongying, Herba Taraxaci) 10 g, Giant knotweed rhizome (Huzhang, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati) 10 g, Milkvetch root (Huangqi, Radix Astragali seu Hedysari) 20 g
Vitamin C, Vitamin E, folic acid
Antiviral drugs Ribavirin, anti-infective and adjunctive supportive medications
Wang 2020b
[52]
Qingre Kangdu Oral liquid Gypsum (Shengshigao, Gypsum Fibrosum), Isatis root (Banlangen, Radix Isatidis), Largetrifoliolious bugbane rhizome (Shengma, Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Cablin patchouli herb (Guanghuoxiang, Herba Pogostemonis), Dandelion (Pugongying, Herba Taraxaci), Figwortflower picrorhiza rhizome (Huanglian, Rhizoma Picrorhizae), Tree peony root bark (Mudanpi, Cortex Moutan Radicis), Cogon grass rhizome (Baimaogen, Rhizoma Imperatae), Mung bean (Lvdou, Viginal radiate) Antiviral drugs Recombinant human interferon α2b, Arbidol hydrochloride tablets
Wen 2020
[53]
Xuebijing injection Safflower (Honghua, Flos Carthami), Peony root (Chishao, Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Sichuan lovage rhizome (Chuanxiong, Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Chinese angelica (Danggui, Radix Angelicae Sinensis) Conventional treatment Follow the COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment guidelines issued by the National Health Commission (NHC)
Ye 2020
[54]
CHM foemula NR Routine pharmaceutical medications Ribavirin/arbidole tablets
Yu 2020
[55]
Lianhua Qingwen granules Forsythia Fruit (Lianqiao, Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae), Honeysuckle bud and flower (Jinyinhua, Flos Lonicerae), Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae), Bitter Apricot Seed (Kuxingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Gypsum (Shigao, Gypsum Fibrosum), Indigowoad Root (Banlangen, Radix Isatidis), Male fern rhizome (Mianma Guanzhong, Rhizoma Dryopteris Crassirhizomae), Heartleaf houttuynia herb (Yuxingcao, Herba Houttuyniae), Cablin patchouli herb (Huoxiang, Herba Pogostemonis), Rhubarb Root and Rhizome (Dahuang, Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei), Rose-boot (Hongjingtian, Herba Rhodiolae), menthol, and Liquoric Root (Gancao, Radix Glycyrrhizae) Antiviral drugs Arbidol hydrochloride dispersible tablets, po, tid; Moxifloxacin tablets, po, qd; Ambroxol tablets, po, tid
Zhang 2020
[56]
Jiaweida formula Honey-fried ephedra (Zhimahuang, Herba Ephedrae) 10 g, Bitter apricot seed (Xingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum) 15 g, Gypsum (Shengshigao, Gypsum Fibrosum) 20 g, Snakegourd peel (Gualoupi, Pericarpium Trichosanthis) 20 g, Rhubarb root and rhizome (Dahuang, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) 6 g, Pepperweed seed (Tinglizi, Semen Descurainiae) 10 g, Peach seed (Taoren, Semen Persicae), Fruit of caoguo (Caoguo, Fructus Tsaoko) 6 g, Areca seed (Binglang, Semen Arecae) 10 g, Atractylodes rhizome (Cangzhu, Rhizoma Atractylodis) 10 g Basic treatment Oxygen therapy, antiviral medications and symptomatic therapies
Zhang 2020
[57]
Jinyinhua oral liquid Honeysuckle bud and flower (Jinyinhua, Flos Lonicerae) Antiviral drugs α-interferon, Lopinavir/ritonavir tablets
Zhao 2020
[58]
CM prescription Bitter apricot seed (Xingren, Semen Armeniacae Amarum) 10 g, Calcium sulfate dehydrate (Shengshigao, Gypsum Fibrosum) 30 g, Snakegourd fruit (Gualou, Fructus Trichosanthis) 30 g, Rhubarb root and rhizome (Dahuang, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) 6 g, Ephedra (Mahuang, Herba Ephedrae) 6 g, Lepidium apetalum Willd (Tinglizi, Semen Descurainiae) 10 g, Peach seed (Taoren, Semen Persicae) 10 g, Fruit of caoguo (Caoguo, Fructus Tsaoko) 6 g, Areca seed (Binglang, Semen Arecae) 10 g, Atractylodes rhizome (Cangzhu, Rhizoma Atractylodis) 10 g General strategies The general strategies were according to the National recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia
caused by SARS-COV-2 (the 5th edition), including bed rest and supportive treatments; ensuring sufficient calories and water intake; maintaining water electrolyte balance and homeostasis, and strengthening psychotherapy for elder children when necessary
Zheng 2020
[59]
Tanshinone II A Sodium Sulfonate NR Isolation and symptomatic supportive care It includes oxygen inhalation, fluid rehydration, anti-inflammatory and disease resistance as well as ventilator assisted breathing
Zhou 2020
[60]
Enteric-soluble capsule of diamine glycyrrhizinate NR Routine treatment Strengthen support treatment, maintain water and electrolyte balance, maintain internal environment stability, effective oxygen therapy; Lopinavir/ritonavir tablets
  1. Qd Once a day, Bid Twice a day, Tid Three times a day, Po Oral administration