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Table 2 Profiles of endocrine, metabolism, and liver function alterations in each group (n = 6)

From: Three-dimensional visualization of electroacupuncture-induced activation of brown adipose tissue via sympathetic innervation in PCOS rats

  Control Obesity Obesity + EA PCOS PCOS + EA
Glucose metabolism
 Fasting insulin (uIU/ml) 15.38 ± 0.60 36.73 ± 1.75*** 25.09 ± 1.33### 33.59 ± 2.06*** 19.65 ± 1.68†††
 Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.03 ± 0.09 5.14 ± 0.17 4.91 ± 0.22 5.53 ± 0.09 4.76 ± 0.10††
OGTT
 Glucose 30 min (mmol/l) 8.35 ± 0.70 9.09 ± 0.40 8.01 ± 0.39 7.96 ± 0.31 7.23 ± 0.21
 Glucose 60 min (mmol/l) 7.78 ± 0.75 8.63 ± 0.51 8.30 ± 0.30 7.80 ± 0.22 7.65 ± 0.15
 Glucose 90 min (mmol/l) 6.43 ± 0.22 8.01 ± 0.45*** 7.86 ± 0.20 6.56 ± 0.18 6.63 ± 0.13
 Glucose 120 min (mmol/l) 5.51 ± 0.70 7.16 ± 0.35*** 7.13 ± 0.21 5.84 ± 0.15 5.49 ± 0.11
  Glucose AUC 13.10 ± 0.10 15.94 ± 0.69*** 15.10 ± 0.19 14.00 ± 0.31** 13.31 ± 0.10††
  HOMA-IR 3.89 ± 0.20 9.17 ± 0.71*** 5.89 ± 0.39## 7.89 ± 0.50*** 4.69 ± 0.37††
Lipid profile
 TC (mmol/l) 1.90 ± 0.05 2.78 ± 0.06*** 2.27 ± 0.08### 2.75 ± 0.07*** 2.08 ± 0.08†††
 TG (mmol/l) 0.86 ± 0.04 1.44 ± 0.03*** 1.10 ± 0.04## 1.35 ± 0.04*** 1.01 ± 0.10††
 HDL-C (mmol/l) 0.99 ± 0.08 0.61 ± 0.05** 0.95 ± 0.08# 0.57 ± 0.08** 0.95 ± 0.11†
 LDL-C (mmol/l) 0.27 ± 0.01 0.36 ± 0.04* 0.29 ± 0.04 0.41 ± 0.05* 0.23 ± 0.04††
 Leptin (ng/ml) 1.41 ± 0.05 2.17 ± 0.12*** 1.71 ± 0.12# 2.21 ± 0.22*** 1.61 ± 0.09†
 ApoE (ng/ml) 72.10 ± 4.74 120.45 ± 7.71*** 104.05 ± 4.12 138.20 ± 6.82*** 87.09 ± 8.34†††
 FFA (nmol/ml) 300.26 ± 13.96 451.81 ± 28.97*** 362.73 ± 8.62# 424.40 ± 30.81*** 299.69 ± 20.85†
 Chemerin (ng/ml) 3.73 ± 0.20 6.13 ± 0.21*** 4.93 ± 0.48# 5.90 ± 0.22*** 5.01 ± 0.37
Liver function
 ALT (U/L) 20.69 ± 2.01 35.22 ± 1.92*** 18.48 ± 1.84### 32.77 ± 3.66* 17.80 ± 3.11††
 AST (U/L) 20.04 ± 1.62 31.47 ± 1.30*** 22.89 ± 1.93## 37.60 ± 3.06*** 20.46 ± 2.16†††
 CRP (ug/ml) 3.212 ± 0.16 5.38 ± 0.38*** 4.77 ± 0.23 5.73 ± 0.15*** 4.14 ± 0.30†
 ALD (ng/L) 255.58 ± 16.30 508.22 ± 39.49*** 343.88 ± 22.15## 475.56 ± 53.48** 297.08 ± 22.90†
  1. Results are presented as means ± SEM, and multiple comparisons between different groups were performed by one-way ANOVA. The bold showed the data with significant differences compared with either control or another two non-EA group. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  2. TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoE apolipoprotein E, FFA free fatty acid, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, Glucose AUC area under curve = 0.5 × (BG0 + BG30)/2 + 0.5 × (BG30 + BG60)/2 + 0.5 × (BG60 + BG90)/2 + 0.5 × (BG90 + BG120)/2, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance = fasting insulin (mU/l) × fasting glucose (mmol/l)/22.5, ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate transaminase, CRP C-reactive protein
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. Control; #p < 0.05, # #p < 0.01, # ##p < 0.001 vs. Obesity; †p < 0.05, ††p < 0.01, †††p < 0.001 vs. PCOS