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Table 1 The classification standard of TCM

From: Traditional Chinese medicine promotes bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering

Classification standard Category References
Shen Nong’s Materia Medica Top-grade [9]
Medium-grade
Low-grade
Compendium of Materia Medica (Ben Cao Gang Mu) Sources, habitats, colors, parts of plants, and how they were collected, processed, and selected for prescriptions [10]
Four fundamental characters: cold, cool, warm, and hot [27]
Five fundamental tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and pungent
Four toxic states: toxic, nontoxic, very toxic, and slightly toxic
12 meridians: bladder, spleen, large intestine, stomach, small intestine, liver, cardiovascular, heart, kidney, gallbladder, pericardium and san jiao
Yellow Emperor’s Inner Canon Herb-derived medicine, animal-derived medicine and mineral-derived medicine [11, 12]
Treatise on Cold Damage
Chinese Pharmacopoeia
Active components Alkaloids [28,29,30]
Terpenoids
Flavonoids
Volatile Oils
Lignanoids
Coumarins
Quinones
Phenols
Glycosides
Saponins
Stilbenes
Phenols
Esters