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Table 2 The basic information of TCM

From: Traditional Chinese medicine promotes bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering

Category Components Structural forms Molecular weight Source Main function References
Flavonoids Icariin 676.67 Epimedium species Treatment of fractures, joint disease, and gonadal dysfunctions [31, 32]
Icaritin 386.4 Epimedium species Osteoprotective effect, neuroprotective effect, cardiovascular protective effect, anti-cancer effect, anti-inflammation effect, and immune-protective effect [33]
Hydroxy safflower yellow A 612.53 Safflower Cardiovascular protection, coronary heart disease treatment and capillary angiogenesis, blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis [34,35,36,37,38]
Xanthohumol 354.4 Humulus lupulus Stimulate osteogenic differentiation, anti-inflammatory, and inhibits osteoclastogenesis [39,40,41]
Kaempferol 286.23 Kaempferia galangal Osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, immune regulation, antiviral, and antidepressant treatments [42,43,44,45]
Cuscuta chinensis Lam. Not applicable (NA) N/A Kaempferia galangal Osteoporosis treatment [45]
Baicalin 446.36 Radix Scutellariae Antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and immunoregulatory activities with minimal side-effects [46, 47]
Baicalein 270.24 Radix Scutellariae Antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and immunoregulatory activities with minimal side-effects [46, 47]
Naringin 580.53 Tomatoes, grapefruits, and many other citrus fruits Anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic activities, and have therapeutic potential cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and oral disease [48,49,50]
Hesperetin 302.28 Chenpi Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti‐carcinogenic effects [51]
Quercetin 302.24 Quercetum, fruit and vegetables Anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer properties, osteogenesis and angiogenesis [52, 53]
Silymarin 482.44 Silybum marianum Hepatoprotective effects, anti-viral, anti-Parkinson, anti‐Alzheimer effects, anti-cancer and anti‐inflammatory [54, 55]
Alkaloids Tetrandrine 622.76 Stephania tetrandria Anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant, anti-allergic effects, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial [56, 57]
Berberine 336.36 Rhizoma coptidis Diabetes, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer therapies, lowing of blood lipids and promote bone formation [58,59,60]
Glycosides Ginsenoside Rg1 801.01 Ginseng Cell proliferation and differentiation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation [61]
Ginsenoside Rb1 1109.31 Ginseng Osteogenesis [62]
Terpenoids Ursolic acid 456.70 Fruits and vegetables Anticancer, antioxidant, and other pharmacological effects [63]
Polyphenols Resveratrol 228.25 Veratrum grandiflorum O. Loes Mediating inflammation, tumerogenesis, and cardioprotective effects [64,65,66]
Curcumin 368.39 Curcuma long L. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects [67]
Epigallocatechin gallate 458.38 Camellia sinensis L. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [68]