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Table 3 Promoting proliferation, osteogenesis and mineralization

From: Traditional Chinese medicine promotes bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering

Active components Biomaterials Experimental models Efficacy References
Icariin SF/SBA15 Rat BMSC (rBMSC), 38.4 µM Up-regulating RUNX2, ALP, OCN, and COLI [94]
SF/PLCL nanofibrous membrane rBMSC, 10−5 mol/L; rat calvarial defects model Up-regulating ALP activity [76]
PLGA microspheres rBMSC, 4 × 10−3 M; rat calvarial defects model Up-regulating RUNX2, ALP, OCN, COLI, and OPN [125]
Col/PCL/HAp composite scaffolds rBMSC; rabbit tibial plateau defects model Up-regulating ALP, COLI, OCN, and OPN [86]
CS-modified halloysite
nanotubes
hASCs, 10−5 M; Up-regulating ALP [79]
CS/nHAP Osteoblast N/A [80]
PCL/Gel MC3T3-E1, 0.05 wt% Up-regulating ALP, OCN, COLI, and calcium content [91]
PLGA/TCP MC3T3-E1, 0.32%; SAON rabbit distal femur defect model; Up-regulating BSP, OCN, and ALP [92]
TCP Ros17/28, 5 × 10−5 M Up-regulating ALP [93]
PHBV scaffolds MC3T3-E1, MG-63, 25 mg/mL Up-regulating BGN, BMP-2, BMP-6, and BMP-7 [83]
BioCaP MC3T3-E1, 5 mg/L; rat calvarial defects model Up-regulating ALP, OCN, RUNX2, BMP-2, and COLI [87]
ECM-SIS MC3T3-E1, 10−5 M; mouse calvarial defect model Up-regulating ALP, BSP, OCN, and BMP-4 [117]
Icaritin PLGA/TCP Rabbit BMSC, 0.74 g/kg; rabbit bilateral thigh muscles model Up-regulating ALP and calcium deposition [88]
PLGA/TCP Rabbit BMSC, 1.4 × 10−3 M; Up-regulating COLI, ALP, OCN and calcium deposition [95]
Hydroxy safflower yellow A BG rBMSCs, HUVECs; rat calvarial defects model Up-regulating RUNX2, OPN, OCN, ALP and BMP-2 [96]
Xanthohumol HA-g-PLLA MC3T3-E1, 5, 10, 20 wt% N/A [81]
Kaempferol TiO2 rBMSC; rat femur defect Up-regulating RUNX2, OCN, ALP, OPN and ON [97]
Zn MG-63, 25 µM; Zebrafish model Up-regulating RUNX2, COLI, ALP, OCN, and ON [98]
Baicalin and baicalein Ca-polyP Primary human osteoblasts, 3 µg/mL Up-regulating calcium, calcium efflux channel, PMCA and ALP [119]
Naringin SF/HAp hUCMSCs, 0.1 wt%; rabbit femoral distal bone defect Up-regulating ALP, RUNX2, OSX and COL1A and promoting AKT and PI3K phosphorylation [49]
microsphere/SAIB hybrid depots Primary osteoblasts, 4% w/w; mouse calvarial defect model Up-regulating ALP, RUNX2 and OCN [99]
CS UMR106, 5 wt%; Up-regulating ALP [100]
PLGA/PLLA/PDLLA MC3T3-E1, 7 wt%; N/A [82]
PLGA Rat calvarial defects model Up-regulating BMP-2, OSX, OPN, BSP, COLI, OCN and calcium content [116]
Hesperetin Gel hMSC, 1 µM; rat tibial osteotomy model Up-regulating RUNX2, ALP, OCN and COLI and promoting ERK and Smads-1/5/8 phosphorylation [89]
Quercetin Ti hMSCs, 64 ± 10 and 842 ± 361 nmol Up-regulating ALP activity and calcium content [126]
DC/HAp Rabbit BMSCs, 25 µM; rat calvarial defect model Up-regulating RUNX2, OCN, and COLI [101]
PLLA MC3T3-E1, 200 µM Up-regulating RUNX2, ALP, OCN, and COLI [102]
MSCS/PCL Wharton’s jelly MSC, 2% Up-regulating calcium deposit [127]
Decellularized goat-lung scaffold BMSC, 100 µM Up-regulating ALP and calcium deposits [128]
Ti hUCMSCs, HGF, 50 nM Up-regulating RUNX2, COL, OCN, and ALP [103]
Silymarin DC/HAp rBMSCs, 100 µM; rat calvarial bone defect model Up-regulating RUNX2, COLI, and OCN [104]
PLA/Carbon nanotubes Wharton’s jelly MSCs; rat calvarial bone defect model Up-regulating ALP [105]
Silibinin Zn C3H10T1/2, MG-63, 60 µM Up-regulating RUNX2, COLI, ALP, OCN, and miR-590/Smad-7 pathway [120]
Alginate/Gel C3H10T1/2, 20, 50, 100 µM Up-regulating RUNX2, COLI, OCN, ALP, Pre-miR-20b and pre-miR-410 and down-regulating pre-miR-30c-1and pre-miR-221 [129]
Berberine PCL/COL DPSCs, 50 µg/mL; rat calvaria defects model Up-regulating ALP, BMP-2, COLI and RUNX2 [58]
PCL/PVP-MC/CS bilayer membrane MC3T3-E1, 10 µM; rat femur defect model N/A [106]
Negatively charged O-carboxymethyl chitosan microspheres MG-63, rBMSCs; rabbit lateral femoral condyle model Up-regulating ALP and OCN [90]
Ginsenoside Rg1 SF/PCL MC3T3-E1, HUVECs, 5% w/w Up-regulating ALP, BMP-2, RUNX2 and OCN [107]
Ginsenoside Rb1 MSCS/PCL hDPSCs, 5% v/v; rabbit femoral defect model Up-regulating ALP, OPN and OCN [62]
Ursolic acid MBG/CS porous scaffolds hBMSCs, MC3T3-E1, 5 µM; rat calvarial defect model Up-regulating ALP, COLI, RUNX2 and BMP-2 and promoting Smad1/5 phosphorylation [118]
Resveratrol PEGDA/TCS hydrogel rBMSCs, HUVECs, 800 µM; rat tibia defect model Up-regulating Ki67, RUNX2, OPN, and calcium content [84]
PLGA microsphere hMSCs, hTHP-1 monocytes, 25 µM Up-regulating ALP, OCN and calcium content [108]
SLNs/GelMA rBMSCs, 0.02% w/v; rat calvarial critical-size defect model Up-regulating ALP, OCN, RUNX2 and OPN [109]
PLA/OMMT hASCs, 0.1 wt% Up-regulating ALP, OCN and OPN [110]
Curcumin PCL MC3T3-E1, 1 wt% Up-regulating RUNX2, ALP, BMP-2, OCN, and OPN [111]
Epigallocatechin gallate Ti-6Al-4 V hADSCs, Raw264.7, 0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/mL; rabbit tibias defect model Up-regulating calcium content, RUNX2, OSX, OCN, OPN [112]
PLLA ADSCs, Raw 264.7, 1 mg/mL; mouse calvarial defect Up-regulating ALP, RUNX2, and OPN [113]
Gel sponges UMR106, 0.07 mg; rat calvarial defects model Down-regulating MMP-2, and MMP-9 [85]
POSS MC3T3-E1, 6 wt% Up-regulating ALP [114]
DC/HAp Rabbit BMSC, 5 µM; nude mouse model Up-regulating RUNX2, OCN, and COLI [115]
Gel sponges Rat calvarial defects model N/A [130]
Genipin CS framework 5 mg Up-regulating RUNX2, OCN, OPN, and ALP [121]
CS 5 mg Up-regulating RUNX2, OCN, OPN, and ALP [122]
Silica particles 20 mM Up-regulating ALP [123]
Proanthocyanidins COLI 10% Up-regulating ALP [124]