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Table 4 Chondrogenesis

From: Traditional Chinese medicine promotes bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering

Active components Biomaterials Experimental model Efficacy References
Icariin HA/Col hydrogel BMSC, 1 µM; rabbit osteochondral defect model Up-regulating SOX9, AGG, COL II, and COL X [134]
COL Rabbit chondrocyte, 10−5 M; rabbit distal femora osteochondral defects model Up-regulating AGG, COLII, SOX9, GAG, and COLI [135]
Selfassembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel rBMSC; 1 × 10−6 M Up-regulating COLII and SOX9 [136]
Resveratrol COLI/PAA Chondrocytes, BMSCs, 0.5%; rabbit osteochondral defects model Up-regulating SOX9, AGG, COLII and COLI [137]
PLA–Gel porous nano-scaffold Rat articular cartilage defect model Up-regulating AKT and COLII and down-regulating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related proteins (VEGF, PTEN, Caspase9 and MMP-13) [138]
Epigallocatechin Hyaluronic acid Chondrocytes, 50 µM; mouse osteoarthritis model Up-regulating GAG, COLII, SOX9 and ACAN and down-regulating ADAMTS5, COLI, and COLX [139]
Genipin Carbon dot hydrogel 500 mM Collagen–genipin–carbon dot nanoparticles improving chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage regeneration [140]