Determination of the active constituents in RA and RAS. (a) Amounts of total saponin, total isoflavonoid and total polysaccharides were determined in RA collected from various regions in China. (b) Amounts of ferulic acid and ligustilide were determined in RAS collected from various regions and countries. The roots of A. sinensis collected from Gansu, Yunnan, Sichuan and Shanxi, China were used. The roots of A. acutiloba from Hokkaido, Japan and A. gigas from Sokcho, Korea were used. Values are in g/100 g of dry herbal materials with means ± SEM, n = 10. (c) RAS from Gansu, China and RA from Shanxi, China should be used for DBT preparation.