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Table 1 Herbs commonly used in diabetes management

From: Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms

Herbs Components Anti-diabetic
Mechanism
Models of experiments or tests Application and recommend dosage Ref
Myrcia Flavanone glucosides (myrciacitrins) and acetophenone glucosides myrciaphenones) Inhibit activity of aldose reductase and alpha-glucosidase Streptozotocin diabetic rats Type II DM 66
Cinnamon Cinnulin PF(R) Improve insulin sensitivity, Decrease fasting blood glucose Human Type II DM
Type I
67, 68, 69
Enicostemma littorale Blume Increase the serum insulin through K(+)-ATP channel dependent pathway but did not require Ca2+ influx Alloxan-induced diabetic rats Type II DM 70
Biophytum sensitivum Stimulating the synthesis/release of insulin from the beta cells of Langerhans Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits Type II DM 71
Ipomoea batatas Caiapo (ipomoea batatas) Decrease insulin insensitivity, increase adiponectin and decrease fibrinogen levels Type II diabetic patients Type II (4 g/d) DM 72, 73
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray Nitobegiku Reducing insulin insensitivity KK-Ay-mice Type II DM 74
Sangzhi Ramulus mori, SZ Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects Alloxan induced diabetic rats Type II DM 75
Galega officinalis Hypoglycemic effects is independent on a reduction of food intake ob/ob animals Type II DM 76
Fenugreek leaves Similar to glibenclamide, hypoglycemic property and an anti-hyperlipidemic via inferenceiing carbohydrate metabolic enzymes Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, human Type II DM 77, 78
Pterocarpus marsupium Decrease HK (hexokinase), GK (glucokinase) and PFK (phosphofructokinase) Human, alloxan-induced diabetic rats Type II DM 79, 80
Vanadium Regulate activity of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, and enhance expression of IRS-1 and GLUT4 mRNA in adipocytes STZ-induced diabetic rats, dexamethasone-induced insulin insensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes Type II DM 81, 82
Artemisia scoparia Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin Anti-atherogenic effect; free radical scavenging properties; inhibited iNOS gene expression and inhibited NF-kappaB activation. Hyperlipidaemic diabetic rabbits, cytokine-induced beta-cell dysfunction Type I DM, Type II DM 83, 84
Gymnema sylvestre Gymnemic acids Controls the activities of phosphorylase, gluconeogenic enzymes and sorbitol dehydrogenase Alloxan diabetic rabbits Type II DM complication 85, 86
Daio (Rhei Rhizoma) Improve kidney function Patients Diabetic nephropathy 87
Lupinus termis Lupinus termis Regulates acetyl cholinesterase activity, AST (Aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) Alloxan-induced diabetes, patients Type II DM 88, 89
Tea EGCG Reduction of IL-1beta and IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and levels of NO synthase (iNOS STZ-treated islets Type I DM, Type II DM 90, 91
Coccinia indica leaves Coccinia indica leaf ethanoliextract (CLEt) Antioxidant property of CLEt Streptozotocin-diabetic rats Type II DM 92
Clausena anisata (Willd) Hook [family: Rutaceae] Terpenoid and coumar Similar to glibenclamide Diabetic rats Type II DM 93
Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT) Similar to glibenclamide, lower blood sugar and hepatic glycogen Alloxan, induced diabetes rats Type II DM 94
Aloes Similar to glibenclamide Patients, alloxan induced Swiss albino diabetic mice Type II DM 95, 96
Vanadyl sulfate bis(maltolato) oxovanadium (IV), BMOV, bis(ethylmaltolato)oxovanadium (IV), BEOV, and bis(isopropylmaltolato)oxovanadium (IV), BIO V, Insulin-mimetic Patients, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice Type II DM, Type I DM, 100 mg per day 97, 98, 99