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Table 3 Pharmacological properties of andrographolide

From: Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian)

Pharmacological properties References
Anti-inflammation
  LPS-induced NO production by suppressing iNOS [27]
  complement 5a-induced macrophage recruitment via   ERK1/2 and PI3K signal pathways [30]
  binding of NF-κB oligonucleotide to nuclear proteins via  ERK1/2 or PI3/AKt signal pathway [28, 3133]
Anti-cancer
  proliferation of HL-60 cells, the JAK-STAT3 pathway [44, 63]
  caspase 8 dependent Bid cleavage, caspase 3, 9 activity, TRAIL-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest [48, 52, 53, 63]
  tumor suppressor p53 expression, MAPKs (p38 kinase, JNK, ERK1/2) signaling pathway [50, 54]
  oncogene v-Src protein expression and v-Src-induced transformation [55]
  E-selectin expression on endothelial cells for cancer cells adhension, MMP-7 expression in cancer cells [57, 58]
  tumor in melanoma subcutaneously implanted mice (orally 200, 400 mg/kg BW, 10d) [45]
Immunomodulation
  proliferation and IL-2 induction in hPBL [31]
  antibody and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response (orally 1 mg/kg, 7d) [74]
  serum anti-Salmonella IgG, IFN-γ in activated splenocytes of mice (orally 1, 4 mg/kg BW, 14d) [76]
  TNF-α and GM-CSF in BALF of OVA-sensitized and nasally-challenged mice (i.p. 3~30 mg/kg BW) [72]
  IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in BALF and OVA-specific IgE in serum of OVA-sensitized mice (i.p. 0.~ 1 mg/kg BW, twice) [71]
  NF-κB expression in lung and airway epithelial cells
  infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung, airway hyperreactivity (i.p. 2 μg/g BW, 7d)
[69]
  expression of IL-2 via   NFAT and   JNK phosphorylation in murine T-cells [67]
  LPS induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in primary rat mesencephalic neuron-glial cultures [70]
  IL-2 production, proliferation, antibody production, T cell activation in EAE (i.p. 4 mg/kg BW) [68]
  symptom and immunological markers in patients with RA (30% andrographolide tablet, 14 weeks) [73]
Anti-infection
  HIV induced cell cycle dysregulation,   CD4+ lymphocyte levels in HIV-1 infected individuals [79, 80]
  viricidal activity against HSV-1, EBV, via   producing mature virus particle [81, 82]
Anti-hepatotoxicity
  CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA in mouse hepatocytes, synergistic effect in with a CYP1A1 inducer [95, 96]
  expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase [99]
  CCl4, tBHP-induced hepatotoxicity (i.p 100 mg/kg, 3d) [91]
Anti-atherosclerosis
  HUVECs apoptosis via enhancement of PI3K-Akt activity [108]
  thrombin-induced platelet aggregation via   ERK1/2 pathway [109]
Anti-hyperglycemic effect
  plasma glucose concentrations of STZ-diabetic rats (oral 1.5 mg/Kg)
  mRNA and protein levels of GLUT4 in soleus muscle
[117, 118]
Anti-Oxidation
  MDA formation [91]
  GSH, SOD activity [92, 93]