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Table 1 Microscopic characteristics of seed coats of seeds of seven Zingiberaceous species as observed in transverse sections

From: Identification of seven Zingiberaceous species based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of seeds

Species Epidermis of testa (layer) Hypodermis of testa (layer) Pigmentation of hypodermis of testa Oil cell layers Pigment layers Obliterated cells layer Ratio of thickness of lumina to endotesta palisade sclerenchymatous cells
Alpinia galanga 1 1 No 1–3 layers, scattered in pigment layer Several layers of brown cells None 1/5–1/4
Alpinia katsumadai 1 2–4 No 1–3 layers, scattered in pigment layer Several layers of brown cells None Approx. 1/2
Alpinia zerumbet 1 3–4 No 1–2 layers, scattered in pigment layer Several layers of brown cells None Approx. 1/2
Amomum kravanh 1 1 Yes 1 Several layers, cell wall not distinct None 1/5–1/4
Amomum subulatum 1 1 Yes 1 Several layers, cell wall not distinct None 1/20–1/10
Amomum tsao-ko 1 1 Yes 1 Several layers, cell wall distinct and shrunken None 1/4–1/3
Elettaria cardamomum 1 1 Yes 1 None 1 layer 1/8–1/10