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Table 2 Summary of outcome measures’ comparison between acupressure and sham groups before, immediate after intervention, and 2 weeks after intervention

From: Self-administered acupressure for treating adult psychiatric patients with constipation: a randomized controlled trial

  Treatment group (n = 33) Sham group (n = 35) GEE test Effect size
Pretest mean (SD) Post-test 1 mean (SD) Post-test 2 mean (SD) Pretest mean (SD) Post-test 1 mean (SD) Post-test 2 mean (SD) Wald’s χ2 P  
CAS 4.45 (0.404) 3.03(0.347) 2.64 (0.361) 4.94 (0.460) 5.12 (0.365) 5.88(0.487) 13.109 <0.0005 0.37
PAC-QoL          
 Total 1.08 (0.712) 0.87 (0.728) 0.88 (0.719) 1.13 (0.695) 1.21 (0.686) 1.41 (0.679) 39.090 <0.0005 0.31
 Physical 0.74 (0.105) 0.54 (0.087) 0.5 (0.103) 0.89 (0.114) 1.09 (0.098) 1.44 (0.121) 17.706 <0.0005 0.33
 Psychosocial 0.41 (0.095) 0.30 (0.071) 0.27 (0.079) 0.96 (0.123) 0.87 (0.112) 1.03 (0.127) 21.513 <0.0005 0.30
 Worries and concern 0.71 (0.091) 0.59 (0.088) 0.56 (0.089) 1.26 (0.107) 1.34 (0.111) 1.56 (0.120) 33.319 <0.0005 0.29
 Satisfaction 2.05 (0.135) 1.79 (0.173) 1.76 (0.139) 2.37 (0.139) 2.63 (0.140) 2.78 (0.128) 17.694 <0.0005 0.32
  1. CAS constipation assessment scale, PAC-QoL patient assessment constipation quality of life questionnaire, SD standard deviation, GEE test generalized equation estimation test