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Table 1 Anti-EV71 effects of extracts from Chinese medicines

From: Chinese herbal medicines as a source of molecules with anti-enterovirus 71 activity

Category Plant source and reference Fraction Anti-EV71 effect Mechanism
Heat-clearing and detoxifying medicine Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Yu Xing Cao) [27, 28] Water extract Reduces CPE (EC50 125.92 μg/mL, SI 101.65), virus titre, plaque formation (EC50 8.9–20.6 μg/mL, SI above 48), viral RNA production and 3A protein expression, inhibits EV71-induced apoptosis, prevents IκBα degradation, and down-regulates IL-6 Inhibits viral replication, and proinflammatory response
Paris polyphylla Smith (Qi Ye Yi Zhi Hua) [32] 95 % ethanol extract Reduces CPE and plaque formation (EC50 78.46–125.00 μg/mL, SI 5.96-9.49), raises IL-6 level Destroys virus
Kalanchoe gracilis (Deng Long Cao) [36] Water extract Reduces CPE and plaque formation (EC50 35.88 μg/mL, SI above 27), and virus yield, inhibits EV71-induced apoptosis, viral 2A protease activity, expression of IL-6 and RANTES, and reduces the viral load in intestine of suckling mice Inhibits viral protease activity, viral RNA replication, and influences host cell factors
Kalanchoe gracilis (Deng Long Cao) [37] Ethyl acetate extract Reduces CPE (EC50 4.21 μg/mL, SI above 97) and plaque formation Inhibits virus binding
Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill (San Bai Cao) [38] Water extract Reduces CPE (EC50 8.9 μg/mL) and virus titre Inhibits activation of MEK1-ERK signalling pathway
Paulownia tomentosa (Pao Tong) [40] Methanol extract Reduces CPE (EC50 65 μg/mL) Inhibits viral RNA replication
Phyllanthus urinaria (Zhen Zhu Cao) [41] Ethyl acetate, and butanol extracts Reduces CPE  
Other Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen) [43] Water extract Reduces CPE (EC50 0.742 mg/mL for SA1, 0.585 mg/mL for SA2), plaque formation, viral yield, and EV71-induced apoptosis Inhibits viral RNA synthesis
Puerarla lobata (Ge Gen) [48] Water extract Reduces CPE (EC50 0.028 μg/mL, SI 107,000), and decreases IFN production Inhibits viral attachment and penetration
Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Gan Cao) [50] Water extract Reduces CPE (EC50 0.056 μg/mL, SI 5000) Prevents viral attachment and penetration
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Trautv (Shan Pu Tao) [51] Acetone extract Reduces CPE and plaque formation (EC50 26.11 μg/mL, SI 5.56), and down-regulated IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 levels Prevents viral infection, inactivated virus, and inhibited viral replication
Daphne Genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Yuan Hua) [59] Water extract Reduces CPE (EC50 0.163–0.824 mg/mL, SI 1.752–8.859), virus yield, virus titre Inhibits viral attachment and penetration
Chinese medicinal formulae Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang [61] Water extract Reduces CPE (EC50 0.21 μg/mL, SI above 23809.52) Inhibits viral attachment and penetration
GuiQi Polysaccharides [62] Water extract precipitated with ethanol Reduces CPE (EC50 below 31.2 μg/mL) Inhibits viral adsorption