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Table 2 Experimental studies on selected CM prescriptions in diabetes nephropathy management

From: Chinese medicines in the treatment of experimental diabetic nephropathy

CM preparations DN model Nephro-protective mechanisms Pharmacodynamic indicators Dosage Duration Ref.
Xiao-chai-hu-tang STZ rat ↓TGF-β1, FN, and collagen IV,↑BMP-7, SOD FBG, BUN, SCr, renal hypertrophy 200 mg/kg b.w 4 weeks [100]
LiuweiDihuang Decoction STZ rat ↓MDA, iNOS, tNOS, cNOS, ET-1, ET(A), ↑NO, MMP-2, MMP-9, GSH-Px, SOD FBG, plasma insulin level 5, 10, or 15 g/kg b.w 4 weeks [57]
Tangshenling mixture plus benazepril STZ rat ↓ANF, GLUT1 UAE, CCr, K/B ratio 5 g/kg b.w 6 weeks [71]
DangguiBuxue Tang STZ rat ↓TGF-β1 K/B ratio, UAE, β(2)-MG concentrations, CCr, FBG, TC, TG 8 weeks [69]
Dang-gui and Huang-qi mixture STZ rat ↓TGF-β1, Ang II FBG, TG, CHO, HDL, SCr, CCr, BUN, β(2)-MG,K/B ratio, GA 8 weeks [68]
Tangshenning Recipe STZ rat ↓TXB(2), TXB(2)/6-keto-PGF1 α, CGRP, MDA; ↑ET, SOD, GSH 35 g/kg b.w 8 weeks [101]
Shenbao Recipe STZ rat ↓CTGF, ↑MMP-9 UAlb, FBG, TC, SCr 13 g/kg b.w 8 weeks [102]
Wu-ling-san STZ rat ↓NF-κB, TGF-β1, FN, AGEs, mitochondrial TBARS, CML UAE, UAlb, CCr, mesangial matrix expansion 2.5 g/kg b.w 10 weeks [103]
Zhen-wu-tang STZ rat ↓Ang II, ↑nephrin, podocin Body weight, polyurea, UAE, SCr, BUN 320 mg/kg b.w. 12 weeks [72]
FufangXueshuantong Capsule HFD + STZ rat ↑GSH-px, SOD UAE, CCr, masengial matrix expansion 450, 900, or 1800 mg/kg b.w 12 weeks [104]
Hachimi-jio-gan STZ rat ↓AGEs, sorbitol FBG, UAE, CCr, serum glycosylated protein, BUN, serum albumin level, TG, TC 50,100, or 200 mg/kg b.w 15 weeks [59]
Kangen-karyu STZ mouse ↓AGEs, TGF-β1, collagen IV FBG, BUN 100, 200 mg/kg b.w 18 weeks [58]
Hachimi-jio-gan OLETF rats ↓NF-κB, TGF-β1, FN, iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2, AGEs, TBARS UAE, CCr, FBG 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg b.w 32 weeks [61]
Yiqiyangyinhuayutongluo recipe HFD + STZ rat ↑Nephrin FBG, UAE, 24 h U-nephrin 0.8 g/kg b.w 32 weeks [105]
  1. AGEs advanced glycation end products, ANF atrial natriuretic factor, Ang II angiotensin II, BMP bone morphogenetic protein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CCr creatinine clearance rate, CHO cholesterol, CML N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, CGRP calcitonin gene-related peptide, CTGF connective tissue growth factor, ET endothelin, FBG fasting blood glucose, GA glomerular area, GLUT glucose transporter, TGF transforming growth factor, FN fibronectin, GSH-Px glutathione peroxidase, HDL high density lipoprotein, HFD high fat diet, K/B kidney/body weight, NF-κB nuclear factor κB, NO nitric oxide, cNOS constitutive nitric oxide synthase, eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase, iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase, nNOS constitutive nitric oxide synthase, tNOS total nitric oxide synthase, MDA malondialdehyde, MMP matrix metalloproteinase, β (2)-MG Urine β (2)-microglobin, OLETF otsuka long-Evans Tokushima Fatty, PGF prostaglandin F, SCr serum creatinine clearance rate, STZ streptozotocin, SOD superoxide dismutase, TGF transforming growth factor, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, TARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TXB(2) thromboxane B 2, UAE urinary albumin excretion rate, UAlb urinary microalbumin