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Table 3 The different kinds of non-plant-origin polysaccharides in nature

From: Bioactive polysaccharides from natural resources including Chinese medicinal herbs on tissue repair

Polysaccharides Composition Source Physiological effects
Alginate Repeated units of 1,4-linked β-mannuronate and 1,4-α-guluronate residues Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) Wound healing, therapeutic agents and proteins delivery, and cell transplantation
Carrageenan Repeating galactose units and 3,6 anhydrogalactose Red edible seaweeds Food additives and immunoregulatory effect
Mushroom polysaccharides β-Glucans and heteropolysaccharides Mushrooms Antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticancer, and antibiotic properties
Heparin Repeated units of sulfonated hexuronic acid (1 → 4)-glucosamine Porcine intestinal mucosa Animal tissue structure, binding affinity for growth factors, and anticoagulation
Hyaluronan Alternating units of d-glucuronic acid, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine Synovial fluid, the vitreous fluid of the eye, umbilical cords and chicken combs Natural fluids, wound dressing, chondroprotective effects
Chondroitin sulfate Alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid) Cartilage of animals Animal tissue structure, dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis
Heparin sulfate A glucuronic acid (GlcA) linked to N-acetylglucosamine Animals Animal tissue structure
Chitin and chitosan Repeated units of N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxyd-glucose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-dglucose residues Crab or shrimp shells and fungal mycelia Wound healing, and drug delivery