Proposed fermentation-induced chemical transformation mechanisms. a1 Flavone O-glycosides and aglycones; b1 isoflavone C-glycosides; a2 proposed biotransformed pathways of flavone O-glycosides and aglycones; b2 proposed biotransformed pathways of isoflavone C-glycosides. Solid arrows: prone to happen; dotted arrows: speculated/less likely to happen.
Indicates an elevation of the compound content;
Indicates a decrease in the compound content (***p < 0.001, *p < 0.05 GQD vs FGQD)