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Table 1 Natural anti-biofilm agents and their molecular mechanisms in anti-biofilm effects

From: Developing natural products as potential anti-biofilm agents

Plants extract/compounds Mechanism/molecular addresses Target bacteria Anti-biofilm effects References
N-(Heptylsulfanylacetyl)-l-homoserine lactone (Garlic extract) Transcriptional regulators LuxR and LasR P. aeruginosa Decreased elaboration of virulence factors and reduced production of QS signals [23,24,25]
Ethyl acetate fraction of Cocculus trilobus Sortase Gram positives bacteria Exerted anti-adhesin effects at the adhesion stage of biofilm formation [26]
Polyphenols (Cranberry) Glucan-binding proteins, enzymes involved in biofilm formation Cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria Affected the destruction of the extracellular matrix, carbohydrate production, bacterial hydrophobicity, proteolytic activities and coaggregation which involved in biofilm formation [27,28,29,30,31]
Patriniae Biofilm-associated genes P. aeruginosa Inhibited biofilm formation and reduced exopolysaccharide production [32]
Ginkgolic acids Curli genes and prophage genes E. coli O157:H7 Inhibited biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass, polystyrene and nylon membranes [33, 34]
Cinnamaldehyde DNA-binding ability of LuxR E. coli and Vibrio spp. Affected biofilm formation and structure, the swimming motility, stress response and virulence [35, 36]
Phloretin Toxin genes (hlyE and stx(2)), autoinducer-2 importer genes (lsrACDBF), curli genes (csgA and csgB), and prophage genes in E. coli O157:H7 E. coli O157:H7 Reduced biofilm formation and fimbria production [37]
Phloretin Efflux protein genes S. aureus RN4220 and SA1199B Anti-biofilm formation at low concentration (1–256 μg/ml) [38]
Isolimonic acid luxO and AI-3/epinephrine activated cell–cell signaling pathway Vibrio harveyi Interfered with cell–cell signaling and biofilm formation [39, 40]
Hordenine QS-related genes P. aeruginosa Blocked QS-controlled phenotypes like biofilm formation and reduced virulence factors [41, 42]
Quercetin SrtA Streptococcus pneumoniae Blocked function of SrtA, affect sialic acid production and impair biofilm formation [49]
Quercetin LasI, LasR, RhlI and RhlR P. aeruginosa Inhibited biofilm formation and production of virulence factors [44,45,46,47,48]
Quercetin pH S. mutans Disrupted the pH in biofilm [50]
Quercetin Glycolytic, protein translation-elongation and protein folding pathways Enterococcus faecalis Blocked glycolytic, protein translation-elongation and protein folding pathways [51]
Methanolic fraction of Zingiber officinale The virulence genes, F-ATPase activity, surface protein antigen SpaP S. mutans Inhibition of surface protein antigen SpaP and inhibitory effect on cell-surface hydrophobicity index of S. mutans [53]
Ethanolic extract of P. betle leaf (PbLE) Pyocyanin P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 Inhibition of Pyocyanin production and reduction of swarming, swimming, and twitching ability of the bacteria by PbLE extract [54]
Bergenia crassifolia (L.) leaf extract Gtfs, EPSs S. mutans Decreased the adherence property of S. mutans through inhibiting Gtfs to synthesize EPSs [55]
Ethanol extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Not investigated S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis Inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation and killed mature biofilm [56]
Extract of Hymenocallis littoralis leaves Adhesin proteins, SrtA and Als3 S. aureus NCIM 2654 and C. albicans NCIM 3466 Antimicrobial, anti-biofilm formation and antioxidant activities [57]
Polyphenolic extract (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate) from Camellia sinesis Not investigated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (sm) isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) Reduced bacterial cell viability in biofilm in vitro and significantly reduced Sm bacterial counts in an acute infection model with wild type and CF mice [58]
Polyphenolic extract from Rosa rugose tea QS-controlled violacein factors Chromobacterium violaceum 026, E. coli K-12 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 Inhibited swarming motility and biofilm formation [59]
Erianin SrtA S. aureus Downregulated SrtA, thereby inhibited cell adhesion [60]
Isovitexin SpA USA300 Reduced SpA and inhibited biofilm formation [61]
Parthenolide LasI, RhlI, LasR, RhlR, and extracellular polymeric substance P. aeruginosa PAO1 Inhibited QS related genes expression including LasI/LasR and RhlI/RhlR and downregulated extracellular polymeric substance [62]
Extract of Chamaemelum nobile flowers Not investigated P. aeruginosa PAO1 and strains isolated from patients Inhibition of bacteria swarming and biofilm formation [76]
Wheat-bran AHL S. aureus Inhibition of QS and biofilm formation through downregulating AHLs level [77]
  1. QS, quorum sensing; SrtA, sortase A; SpA, Staphylococcal protein A; AHL, autoinducer acylhomoserine lactones