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Table 1 The effects of bioactive components from Danshen on major characteristics of AD

From: The effects of bioactive components from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) on the characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease

Compounds from Danshen The effects on the characteristics of AD

Salvianolic acid A
Inhibit Aβ aggregation and disaggregates Aβ fibrils [47]
Anti-Aβ-induced cytotoxicity [47]
Inhibit the activity of β-secretase in enzyme kinetic assay [48]
Inhibit the activity of GSK3β in enzyme kinetic assay [51]

Salvianolic acid B
Anti-Aβ-induced cytotoxicity [52, 53]
Reduce Aβ generation in cells [54, 55]
Down-regulate the expression of β-secretase in cells [54]
Up-regulate the expression of α-secretase in cells [54]
Inhibit the activity of GSK3β in enzyme kinetic assay [51]
Reduce the activity of GSK3β in cells [54]
Activate NRF2-mediated intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism [56]
Reduce abnormal increase of autophagy in in vivo [59]

Danshensu
Anti-Aβ-induced cytotoxicity [53]
Activate NRF2-mediated intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism [61]

Tanshinone I
Inhibit Aβ aggregation and disaggregates Aβ fibrils [64]
Anti-Aβ-induced cytotoxicity [64]
Activate NRF2-mediated intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism [65]

Tanshinone IIA
Inhibits Aβ aggregation and disaggregates Aβ fibrils [64]
Anti-Aβ-induced cytotoxicity [64, 66,67,68]
Reduce Aβ-induced memory decline and neuroinflammation in in vivo [69]
Reduce Aβ-induced p35/Cdk5 pathway [66]
Activate NRF2-mediated intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism [72]
Reduce abnormal increase of autophagy in in vitro [73]

Crytotanshinone
Inhibits Aβ aggregation [74]
Anti-Aβ-induced cytotoxicity [74]
Reduce Aβ-induced memory decline and neuroinflammation in in vivo [69]
Attenuate amyloid plaque deposition and the decrease of cognitive ability in APP/PS1 transgenic mice [76]
Up-regulate the expression of α-secretase in cells [77]