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Table 5 Summary of related research on NCTD overcoming multidrug resistance

From: Insight into norcantharidin, a small-molecule synthetic compound with potential multi-target anticancer activities

Cancers Cell lines Basic mechanisms Pathways Accompanying roles Experiment References
Oral cancer SAS, Ca9-22 Activation of caspase-9, enhancing Bax, downregulating Bcl-2, Bcl-XL    In vitro [108]
Breast cancer MCF-7S, MCF-7R, MDA-MB-231, BT-474   Inhibiting Shh signaling and expression of its downstream mdr-1/P-gp expression   In vitro [103]
MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-415, AU565 Inhibiting SMAC mimetic Birinapant-mediated cell viability and promoting apoptosis and cell death; reducing c-FLIP; enhancing Birinapant-triggered caspase-8/caspase-3, Inhibiting caspase-8 Downregulation of c-FLIP With SMAC mimetics promoting Birinapant-mediated anticancer activity   [172]
Hepatocellular cancer Multiple HCC cell lines Inducing transcriptional repression of Mcl-1 and enhancing ABT-737-mediated cell viability inhibition and apoptosis; activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, involving cytosolic release of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-9, -3 Enhancing ABT-737-induced apoptosis by transcriptional repression of Mcl-1 Enhancing ABT-737 therapeutic efficacy In vitro [111]
HepG2, SMMC-7721 ABT-737 plus NCTD have stronger proliferation inhibition, greater apoptosis induce and stronger Mcl-1 inhibiting, thus enhancing the release of cytochrome C and ABT-737 inducing apoptosis   With ABT-737 solving resistance of ABT-737 to liver cancer   [112]
Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y CHLA-119 Enhancing ABT-263-mediated apoptosis, inhibiting cell viability and clonal formation; upregulating Noxa with cytosolic release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9, -3, and cleavage of PARP Enhancing ABT-263-mediated anticancer activity by upregulation of Noxa   In vitro [113]
Hepatocellular cancer; Cervical cancer HepG2
Hela
Inhibiting PTX-induced Cdc6 up-regulation, maintaining Cdk1 activity, and repressing Cohesin/Rad21 cleavage, thus reducing mitotic slippage and overcoming PTX resistance Reducing mitotic slippage and overcoming PTX resistance via inhibiting Cdc6   In vitro [155]
Pancreatic cancer PANC-1, CFPAC-1 Repressing cell growth and stemness marker CD44, CD24, EPCAM, CD44(+)/CD24(+)/EPCAM(+) proportion, and β-catenin pathway-dependent manner; strengthening the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine and erlotinib Repressing the stemness of pancreatic cancer cells through repressing β-catenin pathway, strengthening the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, erlotinib Strengthening the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, erlotinib In vitro [173]
NSCLC PC-9
HCC827
Reversing resistance to EGFR-TKIs induced by exogenous and endogenous HGF in EGFR mutant lung cancer cells via inhibiting the Met/PI3K/Akt pathway; NCTD plus gefitinib regressing tumor growth and Akt phosphory in vivo Inhibition of Met/PI3k/Akt pathway With EGFR-TKIs in vitro, with gefitinib in vivo In vitro
In vivo
[116]
Lymphoma Multiple myeloma cells Induction of G2/M arrest; down-regulating IKKα and p-IκBα Inactivation of NF-kB signaling pathway Enhancing bortezomib- antimyeloma activity In vitro
In vivo
[174]