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Table 2 Quality control and chemical analysis of rhubarb extracts

From: What we already know about rhubarb: a comprehensive review

No. Extracts Species Part Method Quality control Refs.
1 50% ethanol extract R. palmatum L. Root Column chromatography; HPLC Aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion [107]
2 R. palmatum L. Rhizome Aloe-emodin (0.11%), rhein (0.37%), emodin (0.05%), chrysophanol (0.36%), physcion (0.26%) [14]
3 Methanol extract R. palmatum L. (Three-year-old; harvested in September) Root HPLC Aloe-emodin (0.21%), rhein (0.21%), emodin (0.37%), chrysophanol (1.09%), physcion (0.24%) [108]
4 Methanol extract R. palmatum L. (Three-year-old; harvested in September) Root 1H-NMR Aloe-emodin (0.23%), rhein (0.19%), emodin (0.38%), chrysophanol (1.26%), physcion (0.23%) [108]
5 R. tanguticum Maxim. Rhizome Aloe-emodin (2.09%), rhein (0.001%), emodin (0.001%), chrysophanol (0.08%), physcion (0.07%) [14]
6 R. officinale Baill. Rhizome Rhein (0.001%), chrysophanol (0.09%), physcion (0.09%) [14]
7 Methanol extract Root RP-HPLC Aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion [109]
8 Chloroform
extract
MEEKC Aloe-emodin (2.04%), rhein (0.5%), emodin (1.58%), chrysophanol (5.06%), physcion (0.98%) [110]
9 95% ethanol and chloroform
extract
DryLab software-aided RP-HPLC Aloe-emodin (0.15%), rhein (0.03%), emodin (0.09%), chrysophanol (0.52%), physcion (0.05%) [111]
10 Chloroform
extract
DryLab software-aided RP-HPLC Aloe-emodin (0.33%), rhein (0.07%), emodin (0.20%), chrysophanol (1.02%), physcion (0.18%) [111]
11 Water extract UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS Aloe-emodin (0.14%), rhein (0.31%), emodin (0.24%), chrysophanol (0.37%), physcion (2.69%) [112]
12 Ethanol-chloroform extract LC–MS Rhein, physcion, emodin [113]
13 Methanol extract BC-SOS-LPME coupled with HPLC–UV Rhein (0.6%), chrysophanol (2.53%) [114]
14 Methanol extract Rhei Rhizoma HPLC–UV-MS Aloe-emodin (0.24%), rhein (0.13%), emodin (0.11%), chrysophanol (0.31%), physcion (0.13%) [115]
15 80% methanol extract R. officinale;
R. palmatum;
R. Tanguticum
UPLC-PDA Aloe-emodin-8-O-glucoside, rhein-8-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-1-O-glucoside, emodin-1-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside [116]
16 Methanol extract R. undulatum L. Rhizome Diaion HP-20 column chromatography;
silica gel column chromatography; ODS column chromatography; HPLC
Chrysophanol-8-O-β-d-(6′-galloyl)-glucopyranoside, aloe-emodin-1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, chrysophanol-1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, chrysophanol-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside [117]
17 Ethanol extract Korean rhubarb Rhizome Silica gel column chromatography Chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, chrysophanol-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside [118]
18 Ethanol extract Korean rhubarb Rhizome Silica gel column chromatography Chrysophanol-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, chrysophanol [119]
19 70% ethanol extract R. crispus Rhizome HPLC Emodin-glucoside (0.006%), emodin (0.12%), chrysophanol (0.39%) [9]
20 50% ethanol extract R. likiangense Sam. Rhizome HSCCC Rhaponticin, desoxyrhaponticin [120]
21 Ethanol extract Rhizome Silica gel column chromatography Piceatannol-3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside [121]
22 Ethanol extract Korean rhubarb Rhizome Silica gel column chromatography Desoxyrhaponticin, rhaponticin, resveratrol, desoxyrhapotigenin, rhapontigenin, piceid, ε-viniferin, piceatannol-3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, ampelopsin B, isorhaponticin [118]
23 Acetone extract Garden rhubarb (hybrids of R.
rhabarbarum L. and R. rhaponticum L.)
Rhizome MLCCC; HPLC;
NMR; HR-MS; HPLC–DAD
Trans-rhapontigenin, trans-desoxyrhapontigenin, trans-rhaponticin, trans-desoxyrhapontici, trans-piceatannol-3′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, trans-resveratrol-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside [122]
24 Methanol extract Rhei Rhizoma HPLC–UV-MS Resveratrol-4’-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, resveratrol-4′-O-β-d-(2′’-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside, resveratrol 4’-O-β-d-(6’’-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside [115]
25 80% ethanol extract R. undulatum L. Rhizome Chromatography Desoxyrhapontigenin [123]
26 Methanol extract R. undulatum L. Rhizome Rhaponticin, rhaponticin 2’’-O-gallate, isorhapontin, piceatannol 3’-O-Glc, rhapontigenin, resveratrol, isorhapontigenin, piceatannol, desoxyrhapontigenin [124]
27 Methanol extract Rhei Rhizoma Rhubarb galloyl (RG)-tannin [125]
28 Methanol extract R. tanguticum Maxim. Rhizome Reversed phase gel column chromatography RG-Tannin (3.15%), rhatannin (0.005%) [14]
29 Methanol extract R. palmatum L. Rhizome Reversed phase gel column chromatography RG-Tannin (3.49%), rhatannin (0.85%) [14]
30 Methanol extract R. officinale Baill. Rhizome Reversed phase gel column chromatography RG-Tannin (1.74%), rhatannin (0.004%) [14]
31 Methanol/
chloroform
extract
R. emodi Rhizom; root Column chromatography; TLC [126]
32 Methanol extract rhaponticum L. Petiole RP-HPLC–UV-ESI/MS2 Myricetin-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-O-rutinoside (rutin), quercetin-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucuronide, quercetin-O-glucuronide, quercetin [127]
33 Acetone extract Garden rhubarb (hybrids of R.
rhabarbarum L. and R. rhaponticum L.)
Leaves; petiole MLCCC; HPLC;
NMR; HR-MS;
HPLC–DAD
6,8-di-C-β-d-glucosylapigenin, 6-C-β-d-glucosyl-8-C-β-d-arabinosylapigenin, rutin, 6-C-β-d-arabinosyl-8-C-β-d-glucosylapigenin, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, isovitexin [122]
34 Methanol extract Rhei Rhizoma HPLC–UV-MS Sennidin A (1.12%), sennidin B (0.37%) [115]
35 Hokkai
Daio
Root Eastern blotting Sennidin A phloem (0.00584%), radiate wood (0.0049%), pith (0.00133%) [128]
36 R. australe D. Don Root Column chromatography Carpusin, maesopsin [129]
37 Methanol extract R. undulatum L. Rhizome Diaion HP-20 column chromatography;
silica gel column chromatography;
ODS column chromatography; HPLC
Torachrysone 8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside [117]
38 n-pentane and diethyl ether extract R. rhabarbarum L. Stalk VHS; GC–MS; GC Alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, acids sesquiterpenes, terpenes, phenolic derivatives [130]
39 Methanol extract nanum; R. Racemiferum;
delavay;
pumilum; R. sublanceolatum
HPLC–DAD-ESI-MSn Sennosides, anthraquinones, stilbenes, glucose gallates, naphthalenes, procyanidins, chromones [131]
40 Methanol extract Rhei Rhizoma HPLC–UV-MS Gallic acid (0.26%) [115]
41 95% ethanol extract Root; stem CCC; LC/MS Tannins and gallic acid [132]
42 Ethanol extract R. palmatum L. Rhizom; root HPLC [133]
43 Methanol extract R. undulatum L. Rhizome Silica gel column chromatography 5-methoxy-cis-rhapontigenin, 5-methoxy-trans-rhapontigenin, resveratrol, piceatannol, deoxyrhapontigenin, rhapontigenin, piceatannol, resveratroloside, δ-viniferin [134]
44 Methanol extract R. emodi Wall.ex Meisson Rhizome Silica gel column chromatography Desoxyrhapontigenin, desoxyrhaponticin, chrysophanol-8-O–β-d-glucopyranoside, rhapontigenin, torachrysone-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside [135]
45 Methanol extract R. rhaponticum L. Root RP-HPLC- UV-ESI/MS2 Piceatannol glucoside-1, piceatannol glucoside-2, resveratrol glucoside-1, piceatannol glucoside-3, rhapontin-1, resveratrol galloylglucoside, emodin, rhapontigenin, galloylglucoside, deoxyrhapontin, torachrysone glucoside, emodin glucoside, chrysophanol glucoside, deoxyrhapontigenin galloylglucoside, resveratrol dimer-1, resveratrol dimer-2 [127]
46 70% ethanol extract R. officinale Baill. Rhizome HPLC Sennoside A (0.33%), emodin-glucoside (0.04%), chrysophanol (0.21%), emodin (0.03%) [9]
47 70% ethanol extract R. palmatum L. Rhizome HPLC Sennoside A (0.15%), emodin-glucoside (0.03%), chrysophanol (0.63%), emodin (0.19%) [9]
48 70% ethanol extract R. tanguticum Maxim. Rhizome HPLC Sennoside A (0.56%), emodin-glucoside (0.05%), chrysophanol (0.38%), emodin (0.11%) [9]
49 70% ethanol extract R. undulatum L. Rhizome HPLC Rhaponticin (5.45%), emodin-glucoside (0.097%), emodin (0.049%), chrysophanol (0.464%) [9]
50 70% ethanol extract UPLC/Q-TOF–MS/MS; chromatographic fingerprints Aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, catechin, gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, torachrysone, hydroxy physcion, 3,5,4’-trihydroxy-transstilbene, sennoside A, solindleyin, ect [136]
51 Methanol extract R. officinale;
R. palmatum; R. emodi; R. tanguticum; R. franzenbachii; R. hotaoense;
Root Liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry Aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, emodin 8-O-glucoside, chrysophanol 8-O-glucoside, sennoside A, rhaponticin, epi-catechin, ect [16]
52 Methanol extract R. palmatum L. Ultra-performance liquid; PLC/Q-TOF–MS Emodin-8-O-glucoside, emodin-O-glucoside, catechin-glucopyranoside, gallic acid-3-O-glucoside, torachrysone, chrysophanol dimethylether [137]
53 70% methanol extract R. palmatum L. LC–QTOF MS Rhapontigenin, rhein, resveratrol, cinnamoyl, chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, aloe-emodin, anthranone, dianthrone, etc [138]
54 Water–acetone extract R. rhabarbarum L. Stalk LDI-MSI with gold nanoparticle -enhanced
target (AuNPET)
Emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, citreorosein, citreorosein, sennoside E and F, resveratrol, trans-stilbene, rhaponticin, piceatannol 4’-galloylglucoside, quercetin, oxalic acid, succinic acid, carvacrol, dehydroascorbic acid, pcoumaric acid, lysine, chromene, paeonol, vitamin B5 and D1, amino acids threonine, phenylalanine, digalloyl-substituted, procyanidin B2 and B5, gallic acid, magnesium oxalate, ect [139]
55 Ethanol extract R. palmatum L. HPLC coupled with photodiode array detector Gallic acid, catechins, epicatechin gallate, chrysophanol (> 0.07%), epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, sennoside A, sennoside B, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, physcion (< 0.04%) [140]
56 70% methanol extract R. tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf. HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS Emodin, rhein, physcion, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, (+)-catechin, sennoside A, sennoside B, sennoside C, polydatin, gallic acid, emodin- 8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, aloe-emodin-8-O-glucoside, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, etc [141]
57 Methanol extract R. tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf. UPLC/Q-TOF–MS/MS p-coumaric acid glucoside, (−) epicatechin-3-O-gallate, isolindleyin, phlorizin, emodin, aloe-emodin, emodin-1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, 4-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4′-O-β-d-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside, resveratrol-4′-O-β-d-(2′′-O-galloyl)-glucopyra-noside,
etc
[142]
58 Methanol extract UHPLC Sennoside A, physcion, rhein, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, emodin, aloe-emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, rhein-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, chrysophanol-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside,
physcion-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside
[143]
59 80% methanol extract R. palmatum L.; R. tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf.; R. Officinale Baill. HPLC coupled
with PDA
Physcion, rhein, aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol, gallic Acid, sennoside A, sennoside B, catechins, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate [144]