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Table 2 Main characteristics of included RCTs

From: Acupuncture methods for allergic rhinitis: a systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Country Sample size Allocation
ratio
Age Gender (M:F) (A) (B) (C) Duration of treatment Efficacy and safety criteria Main results
Treatment Group Control Group I Control Group II
Hou 2020 [38] China 60 1:1 / / MA on Sibai (ST 2) with stimulation 1 × /day CM (10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule) / 2 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 1. A > B
Wu 2020 [39] China 80 1:1 A: 32.5 ± 1.8
B: 31.1 ± 2.3
A: (20:20)
B: (21:19)
MA on Xinwu with stimulation 2 × /week + (B) CM (Two arms: (1) 10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule (2) 200 ug/day of Mometasone Furoate Aqueous Nasal Spray as 4 50 ug capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B 2. A > B
Zhang 2020 [40] China 180 1:1 A: 42.37 ± 16.14
B: 39.27 ± 15.21
A: (31:59)
B: (37:53)
Mox on Dazhui (DU 14), Yintang (DU 29), Feishu (BL 13), with stimulation 5 × /week CM (Twice of Budesonide Nasal Spray) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B
Sun 2020 [41] China 210 1:1 A: 38.25 ± 8.84
B: 36.52 ± 9.86
A: (58:42)
B: (58:42)
WA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Baihui (DU 20), Hegu (LI 4), Guanyuan (RN 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Dazhui(DU 14), Fengchi (GB 20), Jiaji (EX B2), Ganshu (BL 18), Shenshu (BL 23) with stimulation 4 × /week CM (Two arms: (1) 8.8 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 8.8 mg capsule (2) 50 ug/day of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray as 2 50 ug capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A > B
Song 2020 [42] China 64 1:1 A: 43.7 ± 13.9
B: 44.6 ± 13.4
A: (17:15)
B: (19:13)
MA on Xinwu with stimulation. 1 × /week CM (Two arms: (1) 10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule (2) Once/day of Budesonide Nasal Spray as 2capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 1. A > B
Wang 2020 [43] China 80 1:1 A: 29 ± 12
B: 28 ± 12
A: (12:28)
B: (15:25)
Mox on Guanyuan (RN 4), Yintang (DU 29), Feishu (BL 13), with stimulation 5 × /week CM (Two arms: (1) 5 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 5 mg capsule (2) Once/day of Triamcinolone Acetonide Nasal Spray as 2capsules) / 3 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B 2. A > B
Zhang 2019 [44] China 60 1:1 A: 33.93 ± 10.19
B: 34.73 ± 11.15
A: (13:17)
B: (13:17)
WA on Yingxiang(LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), with stimulation 2 × /week CM (Once/day of Mometasone Furoate Aqueous Nasal Spray as 1–2 capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of RQLQ 2. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A < B
Gao 2019 [45] China 98 1:1 A: 41.41 ± 9.99
B: 41.08 ± 12.00
A: (18:31)
B: (20:29)
WA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Sibai (ST 2), Dazhui (DU 14), Hegu (LI 4), Shangxing (DU 23), Chizhe (LU 5), Shangyingxiang, with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A > B 3. A > B
Liao 2019 [46] China 64 1:1 A: 35.82 ± 1.61
B: 36.36 ± 1.57
A: (19:13)
B: (17:15)
WA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Sibai (ST 2), Dazhui(DU 14), Hegu (LI 4), Shangxing (DU 23), Chizhe (LU 5), Lieque (LU 7), Shangyingxiang, with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B
Li 2019 [47] China 114 1:1:1 A: 36.69 ± 2.19
B: 38.35 ± 2.30 C: 36.35 ± 2.06
A: (20:17)
B: (19:19) C: (19:18)
MA (Acupuncture on Neiyingxiang with stimulation 1 × /day) CM (10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule) (A) + (B) 2 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 1. C > A > B 2. C > A > B
Wang 2019 [48] China 200 1:1 / / WA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Feishu (BL 13), Shangyingxiang, with stimulation 5 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule) / 2 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 1. A > B
Lu 2018 [49] China 62 1:1 A: 39.00 ± 11.29
B: 39.40 ± 11.56
A: (20:12)
B: (17:13)
MA on Guanyuan (RN 4), Qihai (RN 6), Zhongwan (RN 12), Xiawan (RN 10), Shangqu (KI 17) etc. with stimulation 3 × /week CM (Twice/day of Budesonide Nasal Spray as 4capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 1. A > B
Zhao 2018 [50] China 61 1:1 A: 39.19 ± 11.25
B: 39.40 ± 11.56
A: (14:17)
B: (17:13)
MA on Guanyuan (RN 4), Qihai (RN 6), Zhongwan (RN 12), Xiawan (RN 10), Shangqu (KI 17) etc. with stimulation 3 × /week CM (Twice/day of Budesonide Nasal Spray as 4capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A > B 3. A > B
Yuan 2018 [51] China 58 1:1 A: 34.41 ± 9.59 B: 38.52 ± 10.73 A: (10:19)
B: (16:13)
WA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), with stimulation 7 × /2 weeks CM (1/day of Budesonide Nasal Spray) / 2 weeks 1. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B
Fang 2018 [52] China 50 1:1 / 29:21 AM on Xinwu with stimulation 2 × /week + (B) CM (Two arms: (1) 8 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 8 mg capsule (2)Budesonide Nasal Spray as 2 64 ug capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B 2. A > B
Wen 2018 [53] China 59 1:1 A: 35.45 ± 9.92 B: 34.40 ± 10.25 A: (12:17)
B: (14:16)
WA on Qihai (RN 6), Zhongwan (RN 12), Zusanli (ST 36), Yinglingquan (SP 9), with stimulation 1 × /day CM (Two arms: (1) 10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule (2) Once/day of Triamcinolone Acetonide Nasal Spray as 4capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A > B 3. A = B
Li 2018a [54] China 90 1:1 A: 35.97 ± 7.47 B: 36.09 ± 7.52 A: (25:20)
B: (27:18)
Mox on Yintang (DU 29), Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui(DU 14), with stimulation 1 × /day + (B) CM (Two arms: (1) 10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule (2)Budesonide Nasal Spray as 2 200 ug capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B 2. A > B
Li 2018b [55] China 126 1:1 A: 35.42 ± 7.51 B: 36.90 ± 7.45 A: (35:28)
B: (33:30)
WA on Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui(DU 14), Shangxing (DU 23), Zusanli (ST 36), with stimulation 1 × /day CM (Once a day of loratadine) / 10 days 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A > B 3. A = B
Li 2018c [56] China 54 1:1 A: 41.1 ± 10.7 B: 41.0 ± 9.5 A: (14:13)
B: (12:15)
MA on Xinwu with stimulation. 2 × /week + (B) CM (5 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 5 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 1. A > B
Zheng 2017 [57] China 50 1:1 A: 41.95 ± 11.10 B: 39.71 ± 11.82 A: (7:15)
B: (11:13)
WA on Yingxiang(LI 20),Yintang (DU 29), Sibai (ST 2), Shangyingxiang, Shangxing (DU 23), Hegu (LI 4), Dazhui(DU 14), Chizhe (LU 5), Lieque (LU 7), with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of RQLQ 2. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A = B
Cao 2017 [58] China 86 1:1 A: 36.2 ± 4.8 B: 37.1 ± 4.6 A: (27:16)
B: (25:18)
AM on Yingxiang(LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Dazhui(DU 14), Fengchi (GB 20), Lieque (LU 7), with stimulation 1 × /day MA on Yingxiang(LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Dazhui(DU 14), Fengchi (GB 20), Lieque (LU 7), Shangyintang, Feishu (BL 13) with stimulation with stimulation 1 × /day / 30 days 1. Reduction of Ig E 1. A > B
Li 2016a [59] China 27 1:1 A: 43.75 ± 12.67 B: 34.38 ± 12.93 A: (5:7)
B: (7:6)
WA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Sibai (ST 2), Dazhui(DU 14), Hegu (LI 4), Shangxing (DU 23), Chizhe (LU 5), Shangyingxiang, Lieque (LU 7), with stimulation. 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B 2. A > B
Liu 2016 [60] China 60 1:1:1 A: 33.75 ± 10.82
B: 32.50 ± 9.79 C: 33.40 ± 11.11
A: (7:13)
B: (4:16) C: (9:11)
WA on Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui(DU 14), Yingxiang (LI 20), Zusanli (ST 36), with stimulation 1 × /day MA on Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui(DU 14), Yingxiang (LI 20), Zusanli (ST 36), with stimulation 1 × /day AM on Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Feishu (BL 13), Dazhui(DU 14), Yingxiang (LI 20), Zusanli (ST 36), with stimulation 1 × /day 17 days 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A > B > C 2. A > C > B 3. A = B = C
Li 2016b [61] China 60 1:1 A: 40.20 ± 12.52 B: 42.00 ± 10.87 A: (7:23)
B: (15:15)
Mox on Yintang (DU 29), Dazhui(DU 14), with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A = B
Jin 2016 [62] China 70 1:1 A: 36.45 ± 6.96 B: 35.40 ± 9.23 A: (19:12)
B: (18:12)
Mox on Feishu (BL 13), Zhongfu (LU 1), with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule) / 2 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B 2. A < B
Chen 2016 [63] China 60 1:1 A: 33 ± 8 B: 35 ± 10 A: (18:12)
B: (14:16)
MA on Xinwu with stimulation 2 × /week + (B) CM (Two arms: (1) 10 mg/ day dose of loratadine as a 10 mg capsule (2)Budesonide Nasal Spray as 1 200 ug capsules) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B 2. A > B
Yu 2015 [64] China 64 1:1 / A: (18:14)
B: (17:15)
MA on Xinwu, Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Baihui (DU 20), Lieque (LU 7), Taichong (LR 3) with stimulation 2 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as a 10 mg capsule) / 5 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A > B 3. A = B
Chen 2015 [65] China 66 1:1 A: 44 ± 9 B: 40 ± 11 A: (17:17)
B: (14:18)
MA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Baihui (DU 20), Taichong (LR 3), Shenshu (BL 23), Feishu (BL 13), Ganshu (BL 18), Pishu (BL 20), Dazhui (DU 14) with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A > B 3. A = B
He 2014 [66] China 60 1:1 A: 31.31 ± 13.40 B: 35.22 ± 14.60 A: (12:18)
B: (15:15)
EA on Yingxiang (LI 20),Yintang (DU 29), Fengchi (GB 20), Shangyingxiang, with stimulation 1 × /2 days CM (10 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as a 10 mg capsule) / 40 days 1. Reduction of RQLQ 2. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A = B
Huang 2014 [67] China 90 1:1:1 A: 26.4 ± 1.71
B: 28.2 ± 1.21 C: 27.3 ± 0.86
A: (16:14)
B: (13:17) C: (17:13)
MA on Yingxiang (LI 20),Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Shangyingxiang with stimulation 3 × /week FA on Tongtian (BL 7), Dazhui (DU 14) with stimulation. 3 × /week (A) + (B) 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 1. B > C > A
Si 2014 [68] China 60 1:1 A: 45.63 ± 2.71 B: 45.86 ± 2.28 A: (11:19)
B: (12:18)
WA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Fengchi (GB 20), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangxing (DU 23), Waiguan (SJ 5), Shangyingxiang with stimulation 3 × /week EA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Fengchi (GB 20), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangxing (DU 23), Waiguan (SJ 5), Shangyingxiang with stimulation 3 × /week / 3–4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 2. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A = B
Zhang 2013 [69] China 64 1:1 / A: (12:18)
B: (15:17)
MA on Xinwu, Yingxiang (LI 20), Feishu (BL 13), Lieque (LU 7), Fengchi (GB 20), Zusanli (ST 36), Tongtian (BL 7), Cuanzhu (BL 2) with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 1. A < B
Shi 2013 [70] China 60 1:1 A: 33.60 ± 13.25 B: 35.13 ± 10.78 A: (13:17)
B: (12:18)
MA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Baihui (DU 20), Taichong (LR 3), Shenshu (BL 23), Feishu (BL 13), Ganshu (BL 18), Pishu (BL 20), Dazhui (DU 14), Taichong (LR 3) with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 1. A > B
Wang 2013 [71] China 55 1:1 A: 40.19 ± 12.19 B: 38.68 ± 8.79 A: (11:16)
B: (11:17)
MA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Hegu (LI 4), Baihui (DU 20), Taichong (LR 3), Shenshu (BL 23), Feishu (BL 13), Ganshu (BL 18), Pishu (BL 20), Dazhui (DU 14), Taichong (LR 3) with stimulation 3 × /week CM (10 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A < B 2. A > B 3. B > A
Brinkhaus 2013 [72] Germany 422 2:1:1 A: 33.4 ± 7.5
B: 33.0 ± 8.2 C: 32.2 ± 8.1
A: (82:130)
B: (37:65) C: (52:56)
MA + (C) SA + (C) CM (2 doses of cetirizine hydrochloride) 8 weeks 1. Reduction of RQLQ 1. A > B > C
Lan 2010 [73] China 36 1:1 A: 38.06 ± 11.62 B: 40.72 ± 10.69 A: (5:13)
B: (4:14)
MA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Sibai (ST 2), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangxing (DU 23) with stimulation 3 × /week SA with stimulation 3 × /week / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Reduction of RQLQ 3. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A > B 3. B = A
Xue 2008 [74] Australia 80 1:1 A: 42.5 ± 14.2 B: 44.2 ± 11.0 A: (20:22)
B: (13:25)
MA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), and Fengchi (GB 20) with stimulation 2 × /week SA, with stimulation 2 × /week / 8 weeks 1. Reduction of TNSS 2. Adverse Events 1. A > B 2. A = B
Li 2007 [75] China 100 1:1 / A: (21:29)
B: (22:28)
EA on Xinwu, Shangyingxiang, Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Shenshu (BL 23), Feishu (BL 13), Pishu (BL 20) with stimulation 1 × /day CM (30 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as 3 10 mg capsule) / 34 days 1. Reduction of Ig E 1. A > B
Rao 2006 [76] China 93 1:1 / A: (26:21)
B: (25:21)
MA on Yingxiang (LI 20), Yintang (DU 29), Shenshu (BL 23), Feishu (BL 13), Pishu (BL 20), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Fengchi (GB 20) with stimulation 1 × /day CM (10 mg/ day dose of cetirizine hydrochloride as a 10 mg capsule) / 4 weeks 1. Reduction of Ig E 1. A > B
  1. MA manual acupuncture, EA electroacupuncture, WA warm acupuncture, FA fire acupuncture, Mox moxibustion, AM Acupuncture-Moxibustion, SA sham acupuncture, CM conventional medicine