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Table 1 Therapeutic mechanism and anti-fibrosis actions of ginseng extract and formula

From: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer as a potential therapeutic agent for organ fibrosis disease

Sample Inducing Model Animal groups Therapeutic mechanisms Organ Ref.
Ginseng extract
(GE)
CCl4 Wistar rat (1) Control; (2) CCl4; (3) GE (400 mg/kg);
4. CCl4 + GE (400 mg/kg)
↓TG, TC, LDL, AST, ALT, TGF-β, TβR-I, TβR-II, Smad2, -3, -4, MMP2, -9, col 1a2, col 3a1, IL-8
↑HDL, IL-10
Liver 31
Ginseng CCl4 Wistar rat (1) Control; (2) CCl4; (3) Ginseng (300 mg/kg);
4. CCl4 + Ginseng (300 mg/kg)
↓AST, ALT, GGT, TG, TC, Glu, caspase-3, CD68+
↑TP, Calcium
Liver 32
Ultrasound ginseng berry extract (UGBE) MBDL SD rat (1) Control; (2) Sham; (3) MBDL;
4. MBDL + Silymarin (150 mg/kg);
5. MBDL + GBE (250 mg/kg);
6. MBDL + UGBE (100, 250, 500 mg/kg)
↓AST, ALT, Ammonia, TNF-a, NF-κB, iNOS, NO, Myd88, TLR4
↑SOD, GPX, CAT, HO-1
Liver 33
Tissue culture raised mountain ginseng adventitious root (TCMGAR) CCl4 SD rat (1) Control; (2) CCl4;
3. Cultivated ginseng (100 mg/kg);
4. TCMGAR (30, 100, 300 mg/kg)
↓AST, ALT, ALP, MDA
↑GPX
Liver 34
Ginseng essence (GE) CCl4 Wistar rat (1) Control; (2) CCl4;
3. CCl4 + Silymarin (0.5 g/kg);
4. CCl4 + GE (0.625, 1.25, 3.125 g/kg)
↓AST, ALT
↑GPX, GSH, GRd, GST, SOD, CAT, Albumin
Liver 35
Korean red ginseng (KRG) γIR C57BL/6 mouse (1) Control; (2) γIR;
3. γIR + KRG (10, 50 mg/kg)
↓AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, COX-2, TGF-β1, ERK, NF-κB Nrf2
↑HO-1
Liver 37
Red ginseng extract (RGE) CCl4 C57BL/6 mouse (1) Control; (2) CCl4;
3. CCl4 + RGE (30, 100, 300 mg/kg)
↓ ALT, AST, TGF-β1, PAI-1, α-SMA Liver 38
Korean red ginseng (KRG) Alcohol SD rat (1) Control; (2) Alcohol;
3. Alcohol + KRG (125, 250 mg/kg)
↓TG, TC, SREBP-1c, FAS, ACC, Leptin, HSL
↑CPT-1a, p-AMPK, PPAR-γ, Adiponectin
Liver 39
Panax ginseng extract (PEG) IR C57BL/6N mouse (1) Control; (2) IR;
3. IR + melatonin (20 mg/kg);
4. IR + PEG (20, 50, 100 mg/kg)
↓MDA, TGF-β1, TNA-α
↑SOD, CAT, GSH
Lung 41
Renshen Pingfei Decoction BLM SD rat (1) Control; (2) BLM;
3. BLM + prednisone acetate (5.4 mg/kg)
4. BLM + RPFS (0.65 g/100 g)
↓RI, Smad3, TGF-β, NF-κB, HYP, MDA
↑FVC, TLC, Cchord, SOD
Lung 42
Jinshui Huanxian formula (JHF) BLM SD rat (1) Control; (2) BLM; (3) BLM + PFD (50 mg/kg)
4. BLM + JHF (10.8 g/kg)
↓α-SMA, col-I, col-III, HYP, MDA, MPO, NOX4
↑FVC, T-SOD, GSH, CAT, Nrf2a
Lung 43
Shenge Yangfei Capsules (SGYC) BLM Wistar rat (1) Control; (2) BLM;
3. BLM + dexamethasone (5 mg/kg);
4. BLM + SGYC (70, 420, 850 mg/kg)
↓MAO, TGF-β1 Lung 44
Decoction for
Strengthening Qi and Replenishing Lung (DSQRL)
CCl4 SD rat (1) Control; (2) CCl4;
3. CCl4 + prednisolone (6.35 mg/kg);
4. CCl4 + DSQRL (7.7 g/kg);
5. CCl4 + Prednisolone + DSQRL
↑HYP, TGF-β1, Col lung 45
Ginseng mixture ISO Wistar rat (1) Control; (2) ISO;
3. ISO + Captopril (0.45 mg/2 mL);
4. ISO + ginseng mixture (20, 80 g/kg)
↓HYP, CK, LDH, H2O2
↑CAT, GPX
Heart 47
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) ISO Wistar rat (1) Control; (2) ISO; (3) KRG (500 mg/kg);
4. ISO + KRG (250, 500 mg/kg)
↓ HYP, LDH, AST, ALT, caspase-3, MDA, MPO, CK-MB, TNF-α
↑LVSP, SOD, CAT, GPX
Heart 48
Shensong Yangxin (SSYX) LAD SD rat (1) Sham; (2) LAD;
3. LAD + SSYX (600 mg/kg)
↓col I, col III, α-SMA, TIMP-1, MMP-9, TGF-β1
↑LVEF, LVFS
Heart 49
Tongxinluo (TXL) LAD SD rat (1) Sham; (2) LAD;
3. LAD + benazepril (10 mg/kg);
4. LAD + TXL (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g/kg)
↓ col II, col III, MMP-2, -9, α-SMA, FSP-1
↑LVEF, LVFS, CD31, VE-cadherin
Heart 50
Shengmai San (SMS) LAD SD rat (1) Sham; (2) LAD; (3) LAD + SMS (500 mg/kg) ↓col I, col III, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, BNP, TGF-β1, MMP-9, α-SMA
↑LVEF, LVFS, Cx43, Cx40, TIMP-1
Heart 51
Shengmai Yin (SMY) Doxorubicin (DOX) SD rat (1) Control; (2) DOX;
3. DOX + SMY (8.35, 16.7, 33.4 g/kg)
↓BNP, CK-MB, TLR2, MCP-1, INF-γ, IL-6, PICP, PIIINP
↑LVEF
Heart 52
YiQiFuMai LAD ICR mouse (1) Control; (2) LAD;
3. LAD + metoprolol (5.14 mg/kg);
4. LAD + YQFM (0.13, 0.26, 0.53 g/kg)
↓MDA, LDH, CK, HYP, p38, JNK, ErK1/2, PIIINP,
NT-proBNP
↑LVEF, LVFS
Heart 53
Ginseng gentamicin sulphate (GS) SD rat (1) Control; (2) GS;
3. GS + KRG (100, 200 mg/kg)
↓Cre, Urea, BUN, AST, ALT, GGT, TC, TG, Glu, TP, Bax,
↑Bcl-2 Calcium, Phosphorus
Kidney 55
Sun Ginseng (SG) adenine SD rat (1) Control; (2) Adenine;
3. Adenine + SG (0.5, 1.0 g/kg)
↓Scr, BUN, phosphate in serum, calcium in urine
↑calcium in serum, phosphate in urine
Kidney 56
Korean red ginseng (KRG) STZ SD rat (1) Control; (2) STZ;
3. STZ + losartan (100 mg/kg/);
4. STZ + KRG (250, 500 mg/kg)
↓blood glucose, HbA1c, BUN, α-SMA, TGF-β1, KIM1, AGE, p62, mTOR
↑LC3, ATG7
Kidney 57
Korean red ginseng
powder (KRGP)
tacrolimus BALB/c mouse (1) Control; (2) KRGP (0.2 g/kg);
3. tacrolimus;
4. tacrolimus + KRGP
↓Scr, α-SMA, TGF-β, 8-OHdG, PI3K, p-AKT, FoxO3a, ROS
↑Plasma Klotho, E-CA, MnSOD
Kidney 58
GS-E3D STZ SD rat 1.Control; 2. STZ;
3. STZ + GS-E3D (20, 50, 100 mg/kg)
↓albuminuria, 8-OHdG in urine, AGE in urine, α-SMA Kidney 59
TXL diabetes KK-Ay mouse 1. Control: C57BL/6 mouse;
2. Model: KK-Ay mouse;
3. KK-Ay mice + TXL (0.75 g/kg)
↓TGF-β1, Smad3, col IV, FN,
↑Ccr
Kidney 60
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