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Table 1 Direct inhibited efficacy of Chinese medicines on NF-κB pathway

From: Targeting NF-κB pathway for treating ulcerative colitis: comprehensive regulatory characteristics of Chinese medicines

ClassificationsChinese medicinesModelsMechanismsReferences
Heat-clearing and dampness-drying medicineCasticinRAW264.7Repress the NF-κBp65 nucleus translocation[44]
BaicalinDSS-induced colon tissueReduce the protein levels of NF-κBp65 and p-NF-κBp65[45]
UC patientsDecrease ratios of p-NF-κB/NF-κB[46]
WogoninCaco-2 cellsDecrease NF-κB activity[47]
WogonosideDSS-induced colon tissuesInhibit nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65, phosphorylated p65 and NF-κB DNA binding activity[48]
AOM/DSS-induced tumor tissuesInhibit the protein expression of p-p65[49]
THP-1 cellsSuppress NF-κB nuclear translocation[49]
BerberineColonic macrophages and epithelial cellsInhibit activation of NF-κB[50]
(±)-8-ADCDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce phosphor-NF-κBp65 expression; Decrease the NF-κB mRNA expression[53]
IEC6 CellsReduce phosphor-NF-κBp65 expression[53]
Berberine hydrochlorideDSS-induced colonic tissuesSuppress the expressions of phosphorylation of NF-κBp65[54, 55]
ApocyninDSS-induced tissuesReduce the activation of NF-κBp65[56]
MatrineTNBS-induced colonic mucosaReduce the overexpression of NF-κBp65[58]
OxymatrineTNBS-induced colon mucosaDown-regulate the expression of NF-κBp65[59]
Ampelopsis grossedentataDSS-induced colon tissuesSuppress the NF-κB activation[60]
SM934DSS-induced colon tissueDecrease phosphorylation of NF-κB[61]
MacrophagesSuppress phosphorylation of NF-κBp65; Inhibit NF-κB nuclear translocation[61]
ArtesunateRAW264.7 cellsReduce the expression levels of p‑NF‑κB[62]
TetrandrineDSS-induced colon tissueInhibit the binding activity of NF-κB to DNA[63]
Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.DSS-induced colon tissueSuppress the NF-κB[64]
Interior-warming and drying dampness medicineAesculinRAW264.7 cellsInhibit p-NF‑κBp65 levels in nucleus[65]
Total triterpenoids of Chaenomeles speciosaDSS-induced colon tissueDown-regulate the protein expressions of nucleus NF-κBp65, up-regulate the protein expressions of cytosol NF-κBp65[66]
CardamoninRAW264.7 cellsPrevent the nuclear accumulation of NF‑κBp65; Block the translocation of NF‑κBp65[67]
AA-induced colon tissueReduce the levels of NF-κB[69]
3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acidTNBS-induced colon tissuesDecrease NF-κBp65 subunit level[70]
Wu Zhu YuDSS-induced colon tissuesDown-regulate the increased phosphorylation levels of NF-κBp65[71]
CloveTNBS-induced colon tissueDown-regulate the expressions of NF-κBp65[72]
DSS-induced colon tissuesReduce the expressions of p65-NF-κB[73]
RAW264.7 macrophagesDecrease the expressions of p65-NF-κB[73]
Zanthoxylum bungeanumDSS-induced colon tissueInhibit NF-κBp65 phosphorylation levels[74]
GalanginDSS-induced colon tissueSuppress protein expressions of p-NF-κB; Decrease the accumulation of nuclear NF-κBp65[75]
Detoxificating and purgative medicineParthenolideDSS-induced colon tissueInhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65[76]
HCT116 cellsBlock the activation of p65[77]
ArctigeninDSS-induced colonic tissuesSuppress phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 and p65 translocation[78]
Andrographolide derivative AL-1TNBS-induced colon tissuesAattenuate the expression levels of p-p65[79]
Andrographolide derivative CX-10DSS-induced colonic tissueReduce the expressions of NF-κB p65[80]
BrusatolDSS-induced colon tissueAttenuate the expression of NF-κBp65[81]
Brucea javanica oilDSS-induced colon tissuesSuppress the NF-κB activation; Inhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65[82]
Total flavonoids of Hedyotis diffusa WilldRAW 264.7 cellsReduce the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65[83]
Oldenlandia diffusaDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce the activation of NF-κBp65[84]
Qing DaiRAW264.7 cellsAbolish NF‑κBp65 translocation to the nucleus[86]
IndirubinDSS-induced colon tissuesReverse DSS-mediated up-regulation of p-NF-κBp65[87]
DandelionDSS-induced NCM460 cellDecrease the phosphorylation of NF‑κBp65[88]
Portulaca oleracea L.DSS-induced colon tissuesReduce the protein expressions of NF-κBp65[89]
Rhubarb-type anthraquinonesRAW264.7 macrophagesRhein reduce phosphor-NF-κBp65 levels[91]
HT-29 cellsEmodin block NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation[92]
DSS-induced colitis tissuesChrysophanol reduce the activation of NF-κBp65[93]
Gallic acidDSS-induced colon tissueInhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65[94]
RAW264.7 macrophageDecrease the expression of NF-κBp65[94]
AllicinDSS-induced colonic mucosaPrevent the inhibition of inducing nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65[95]
Cassia obtusifoliaDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce the level of NF-κBp65[96]
BergeninRAW264.7 cellsSuppress the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κBp65; Inhibit the acetylation of NF-κBp65, increase the association of NF-κBp65 and IκBα, and hinder the nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65[97]
Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) MeisnRaw264.7 cellsInhibit NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation[98]
Chlorogenic acidDSS-induced colon mucosaReduce the phosphorylation level of NF-κBp65 protein[99]
Blood-activating medicinePaeonolCW-2 cellsReduce NF-κB transactivation[99]
LiriodendrinDSS-induced colon tissuesSuppress the activation of NF-κB pathways; Reduce in phosphorylation of NF-κB[101]
RAW264.7 macrophagesReduce the phosphorylation of NF-κB[101]
ShikoninDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce the expression of NF-κBp65[102]
TetramethylpyrazineOXZ-induced colitis mucosaReduce the rise in NF-κBp65[103]
CrocetinTNBS-induced colonic mucosaDown-regulate the NF-κB[104]
EpicatechinRAW264.7 cellsInhibit the activation of NF-κB[105]
CurcuminColonic mucosaModulate NF-κB activation[110]
Qi-regulating medicineNorisoboldineDSS-induced colon tissuesInhibit phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κBp65[113]
Citrus aurantium L.TNBS-induced colon tissuesInhibit the NF-κB pathway[114]
RAW264.7 cellsInhibit the protein expressions of NF-κB[114]
Tonifying medicineEclipta ProstrataHT-29 cellsReduce the nuclear translocation of NF-κB[115]
Astragalus polysaccharideDSS-induced colonic tissuesReduce NF-κB DNA phosphorylation activity[116]
Astragaloside IVCCD‑18Co cellsInhibit the phosphorylation of NF‑κBp65[117]
Licochalcone ADSS-induced colonic tissuesReverse the increased expression of p65 NF-κB[118]
Diammonium glycyrrhizinateAA-induced colonic tissuesSuppress the positive percentage and density of NF-κBp65[119]
Vanillic acidDSS-induced colon tissuesSuppress the activation of transcription NF-κBp65[120]
PaeoniflorinTNBS-induced colon tissuesInhibit the expressions of p-NF-κB[121]
The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.AOM/DSS-induced colon tissueAttenuate the expression of proteins in the NF-κB[122]
OligonolDSS-induced colon tissueDecrease nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65[123]
Lentinus edodes β-glucansRAW264.7 cellsInhibit NF-κB activation[124]
Mango extractCCD-18Co cellsReduce expression of NF-κB and pNF-κB protein[125]
Astringent medicineMuscoviteIodoacetamide-induced colitis tissuesDecrease the activity of NF-κBp65 and reduce the p65 transferred into the nucleus[126]
Shan Zhu YuHuman umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)Attenuate NF-κB expression[127]
MacrophagesInhibit NF-κB activation[129]
Rubus coreanusRAW264.7 macrophagesAttenuate the nuclear translocations of NF-κBp65[130]
RAW 264.7 cellsReduce NF-κB activity[131]
OstholeDSS-induced colonic tissueReduce the expression of NF-κBp65[132]
Tonifying Qi and activating blood categoryTou Nong SanTNBS-induced colon tissueReduce the activation of the NF-κBp65[134]
Heat-clearing and drying dampness categoryShaoyao DecoctionAOM/DSS-induced colonic tissuesSuppress NF-κB activation[135]
Qingchang Huashi recipeHT-29 cellsReduce the activation of NF-κB[137]
Gegenqinlian DecoctionTNBS-induced colon tissueInhibit the activation and translocation of NF-κBp65[138]
DSS-induced colonic tissuesDecrease the P-NF-κBp65[139]
RAW 264.7 cellsDown-regulate the expression of P-NF-κBp65[139]
Jianpi Qingchang decoctionDSS‑induced colon tissueInhibit the activation of the NF-κB[140]
Modified pulsatilla decoctionOXZ-induced colon tissuesSuppress the activation of the NF-κB[142]
Qing Hua Chang YinDSS‑induced colon tissueInhibit the expression of the nuclear translocation of NF‑κB[143]
QingBai decoctionDSS‑induced colon tissueDecrease the protein level of P-NF-κBp65[145]
Chang-An-ShuanTNBS-induced colonic tissuesDown-regulate the expression levels of NF-κBp65[146]
BaishaoqiwuTNBS-induced colon tissuesInhibit expression of the NF-ĸBp65 genes[147]
Xie-xin decoctionTNBS-induced colon tissuesDecrease expression of NF-ĸBp65[148]
Compound sophorae decoctionDSS‑induced colonic tissuesReduce the level of phospho-NF-κBp65[149]
Huangkui Lianchang decoctionDSS-induced Colon TissueDecrease the NF-B levels[150]
Bawei Xilei powderUC patientsDecrease the expression of NF-κBp65[151]
Harmonizing cold and hot categoryBan-xia-xie-xin decoctionDSS-induced colorectumsInhibition of NF-κBp65 activation[152]
Wu-mei-wanDNCB-induced colonic tissueInhibit the NF-κBp65 activity[153]
Warming yang and drying dampness categoryModified ZenWu decoctionDSS-induced colonic tissuesAttenuate the activation of NF-κB and suppress the expression of NF-κBp65[154]
Ping weisanDSS-induced colon tissuesReduce phosphorylation of NF-κBp65[155]
RAW264.7cellsReduce phosphorylation of NF-κBp65[155]
Astringent categoryZhenrenyangzang decoctionTNBS-induced colon tissuesReduce NF-κB mRNA expression[156]