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Table 1 Direct inhibited efficacy of Chinese medicines on NF-κB pathway

From: Targeting NF-κB pathway for treating ulcerative colitis: comprehensive regulatory characteristics of Chinese medicines

Classifications Chinese medicines Models Mechanisms References
Heat-clearing and dampness-drying medicine Casticin RAW264.7 Repress the NF-κBp65 nucleus translocation [44]
Baicalin DSS-induced colon tissue Reduce the protein levels of NF-κBp65 and p-NF-κBp65 [45]
UC patients Decrease ratios of p-NF-κB/NF-κB [46]
Wogonin Caco-2 cells Decrease NF-κB activity [47]
Wogonoside DSS-induced colon tissues Inhibit nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65, phosphorylated p65 and NF-κB DNA binding activity [48]
AOM/DSS-induced tumor tissues Inhibit the protein expression of p-p65 [49]
THP-1 cells Suppress NF-κB nuclear translocation [49]
Berberine Colonic macrophages and epithelial cells Inhibit activation of NF-κB [50]
(±)-8-ADC DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce phosphor-NF-κBp65 expression; Decrease the NF-κB mRNA expression [53]
IEC6 Cells Reduce phosphor-NF-κBp65 expression [53]
Berberine hydrochloride DSS-induced colonic tissues Suppress the expressions of phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 [54, 55]
Apocynin DSS-induced tissues Reduce the activation of NF-κBp65 [56]
Matrine TNBS-induced colonic mucosa Reduce the overexpression of NF-κBp65 [58]
Oxymatrine TNBS-induced colon mucosa Down-regulate the expression of NF-κBp65 [59]
Ampelopsis grossedentata DSS-induced colon tissues Suppress the NF-κB activation [60]
SM934 DSS-induced colon tissue Decrease phosphorylation of NF-κB [61]
Macrophages Suppress phosphorylation of NF-κBp65; Inhibit NF-κB nuclear translocation [61]
Artesunate RAW264.7 cells Reduce the expression levels of p‑NF‑κB [62]
Tetrandrine DSS-induced colon tissue Inhibit the binding activity of NF-κB to DNA [63]
Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc. DSS-induced colon tissue Suppress the NF-κB [64]
Interior-warming and drying dampness medicine Aesculin RAW264.7 cells Inhibit p-NF‑κBp65 levels in nucleus [65]
Total triterpenoids of Chaenomeles speciosa DSS-induced colon tissue Down-regulate the protein expressions of nucleus NF-κBp65, up-regulate the protein expressions of cytosol NF-κBp65 [66]
Cardamonin RAW264.7 cells Prevent the nuclear accumulation of NF‑κBp65; Block the translocation of NF‑κBp65 [67]
AA-induced colon tissue Reduce the levels of NF-κB [69]
3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid TNBS-induced colon tissues Decrease NF-κBp65 subunit level [70]
Wu Zhu Yu DSS-induced colon tissues Down-regulate the increased phosphorylation levels of NF-κBp65 [71]
Clove TNBS-induced colon tissue Down-regulate the expressions of NF-κBp65 [72]
DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce the expressions of p65-NF-κB [73]
RAW264.7 macrophages Decrease the expressions of p65-NF-κB [73]
Zanthoxylum bungeanum DSS-induced colon tissue Inhibit NF-κBp65 phosphorylation levels [74]
Galangin DSS-induced colon tissue Suppress protein expressions of p-NF-κB; Decrease the accumulation of nuclear NF-κBp65 [75]
Detoxificating and purgative medicine Parthenolide DSS-induced colon tissue Inhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 [76]
HCT116 cells Block the activation of p65 [77]
Arctigenin DSS-induced colonic tissues Suppress phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 and p65 translocation [78]
Andrographolide derivative AL-1 TNBS-induced colon tissues Aattenuate the expression levels of p-p65 [79]
Andrographolide derivative CX-10 DSS-induced colonic tissue Reduce the expressions of NF-κB p65 [80]
Brusatol DSS-induced colon tissue Attenuate the expression of NF-κBp65 [81]
Brucea javanica oil DSS-induced colon tissues Suppress the NF-κB activation; Inhibit the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 [82]
Total flavonoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd RAW 264.7 cells Reduce the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 [83]
Oldenlandia diffusa DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce the activation of NF-κBp65 [84]
Qing Dai RAW264.7 cells Abolish NF‑κBp65 translocation to the nucleus [86]
Indirubin DSS-induced colon tissues Reverse DSS-mediated up-regulation of p-NF-κBp65 [87]
Dandelion DSS-induced NCM460 cell Decrease the phosphorylation of NF‑κBp65 [88]
Portulaca oleracea L. DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce the protein expressions of NF-κBp65 [89]
Rhubarb-type anthraquinones RAW264.7 macrophages Rhein reduce phosphor-NF-κBp65 levels [91]
HT-29 cells Emodin block NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation [92]
DSS-induced colitis tissues Chrysophanol reduce the activation of NF-κBp65 [93]
Gallic acid DSS-induced colon tissue Inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 [94]
RAW264.7 macrophage Decrease the expression of NF-κBp65 [94]
Allicin DSS-induced colonic mucosa Prevent the inhibition of inducing nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 [95]
Cassia obtusifolia DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce the level of NF-κBp65 [96]
Bergenin RAW264.7 cells Suppress the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κBp65; Inhibit the acetylation of NF-κBp65, increase the association of NF-κBp65 and IκBα, and hinder the nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 [97]
Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn Raw264.7 cells Inhibit NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation [98]
Chlorogenic acid DSS-induced colon mucosa Reduce the phosphorylation level of NF-κBp65 protein [99]
Blood-activating medicine Paeonol CW-2 cells Reduce NF-κB transactivation [99]
Liriodendrin DSS-induced colon tissues Suppress the activation of NF-κB pathways; Reduce in phosphorylation of NF-κB [101]
RAW264.7 macrophages Reduce the phosphorylation of NF-κB [101]
Shikonin DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce the expression of NF-κBp65 [102]
Tetramethylpyrazine OXZ-induced colitis mucosa Reduce the rise in NF-κBp65 [103]
Crocetin TNBS-induced colonic mucosa Down-regulate the NF-κB [104]
Epicatechin RAW264.7 cells Inhibit the activation of NF-κB [105]
Curcumin Colonic mucosa Modulate NF-κB activation [110]
Qi-regulating medicine Norisoboldine DSS-induced colon tissues Inhibit phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κBp65 [113]
Citrus aurantium L. TNBS-induced colon tissues Inhibit the NF-κB pathway [114]
RAW264.7 cells Inhibit the protein expressions of NF-κB [114]
Tonifying medicine Eclipta Prostrata HT-29 cells Reduce the nuclear translocation of NF-κB [115]
Astragalus polysaccharide DSS-induced colonic tissues Reduce NF-κB DNA phosphorylation activity [116]
Astragaloside IV CCD‑18Co cells Inhibit the phosphorylation of NF‑κBp65 [117]
Licochalcone A DSS-induced colonic tissues Reverse the increased expression of p65 NF-κB [118]
Diammonium glycyrrhizinate AA-induced colonic tissues Suppress the positive percentage and density of NF-κBp65 [119]
Vanillic acid DSS-induced colon tissues Suppress the activation of transcription NF-κBp65 [120]
Paeoniflorin TNBS-induced colon tissues Inhibit the expressions of p-NF-κB [121]
The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. AOM/DSS-induced colon tissue Attenuate the expression of proteins in the NF-κB [122]
Oligonol DSS-induced colon tissue Decrease nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 [123]
Lentinus edodes β-glucans RAW264.7 cells Inhibit NF-κB activation [124]
Mango extract CCD-18Co cells Reduce expression of NF-κB and pNF-κB protein [125]
Astringent medicine Muscovite Iodoacetamide-induced colitis tissues Decrease the activity of NF-κBp65 and reduce the p65 transferred into the nucleus [126]
Shan Zhu Yu Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) Attenuate NF-κB expression [127]
Macrophages Inhibit NF-κB activation [129]
Rubus coreanus RAW264.7 macrophages Attenuate the nuclear translocations of NF-κBp65 [130]
RAW 264.7 cells Reduce NF-κB activity [131]
Osthole DSS-induced colonic tissue Reduce the expression of NF-κBp65 [132]
Tonifying Qi and activating blood category Tou Nong San TNBS-induced colon tissue Reduce the activation of the NF-κBp65 [134]
Heat-clearing and drying dampness category Shaoyao Decoction AOM/DSS-induced colonic tissues Suppress NF-κB activation [135]
Qingchang Huashi recipe HT-29 cells Reduce the activation of NF-κB [137]
Gegenqinlian Decoction TNBS-induced colon tissue Inhibit the activation and translocation of NF-κBp65 [138]
DSS-induced colonic tissues Decrease the P-NF-κBp65 [139]
RAW 264.7 cells Down-regulate the expression of P-NF-κBp65 [139]
Jianpi Qingchang decoction DSS‑induced colon tissue Inhibit the activation of the NF-κB [140]
Modified pulsatilla decoction OXZ-induced colon tissues Suppress the activation of the NF-κB [142]
Qing Hua Chang Yin DSS‑induced colon tissue Inhibit the expression of the nuclear translocation of NF‑κB [143]
QingBai decoction DSS‑induced colon tissue Decrease the protein level of P-NF-κBp65 [145]
Chang-An-Shuan TNBS-induced colonic tissues Down-regulate the expression levels of NF-κBp65 [146]
Baishaoqiwu TNBS-induced colon tissues Inhibit expression of the NF-ĸBp65 genes [147]
Xie-xin decoction TNBS-induced colon tissues Decrease expression of NF-ĸBp65 [148]
Compound sophorae decoction DSS‑induced colonic tissues Reduce the level of phospho-NF-κBp65 [149]
Huangkui Lianchang decoction DSS-induced Colon Tissue Decrease the NF-B levels [150]
Bawei Xilei powder UC patients Decrease the expression of NF-κBp65 [151]
Harmonizing cold and hot category Ban-xia-xie-xin decoction DSS-induced colorectums Inhibition of NF-κBp65 activation [152]
Wu-mei-wan DNCB-induced colonic tissue Inhibit the NF-κBp65 activity [153]
Warming yang and drying dampness category Modified ZenWu decoction DSS-induced colonic tissues Attenuate the activation of NF-κB and suppress the expression of NF-κBp65 [154]
Ping weisan DSS-induced colon tissues Reduce phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 [155]
RAW264.7cells Reduce phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 [155]
Astringent category Zhenrenyangzang decoction TNBS-induced colon tissues Reduce NF-κB mRNA expression [156]