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Table 1 Anti-osteoporosis activities of E. ulmoides

From: Traditional application and modern pharmacological research of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.

Compounds Subjects Dose Effects Notes References
Methanol extract of E. ulmoides leaf (MEEuL) False aged model rats 1.8 and 2.7 g of dried E. ulmoides leaf/kg MEEuL promoted collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (increase of 68% and 131% respectively) These fractions were fractioned with organic reagent sequentially [28]
N-hexane fraction of the methanol extract of leaf (NF-MEEuL)   1.5 and 3.1 g of dried E. ulmoides leaf/kg No significant effect on collagen synthesis   
AcOEt fraction of the methanol extract of leaf (AEF-MEEuL)   1.5 and 2.9 g of dried E. ulmoides leaf/kg No significant effect on collagen synthesis   
Acetone fraction of the methanol extract of leaf (AF-MEEuL)   1.5 and 3.0 g of dried E. ulmoides leaf/kg AF-MEEuL promoted collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (increase of 57% at dose of 3.0 g of dried E. ulmoides leaf/kg)   
Methonal fraction of the methanol extract of leaf (MF-MEEuL)   1.5 and 3.0 g of dried E. ulmoides leaf/kg No significant effect on collagen synthesis   
Geniposidic acid   25, 50 and 100 mg/kg Geniposidic acid promoted collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (increase of 79%, 82%, 95% respectively)   
Aucubin   25 and 50 mg/kg Aucubin promoted collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (increase of 99% at dose of 50 mg/kg)   
Methanol extract of E. ulmoides cortex (MEEuC) Osteoblast, MG- 63 and Saos-2 (osteoblast-like cells); mouse bone marrow cells and ST-2 cells (osteoclast-like cells) 1 mg/ml in GH inducing test; 1 × 10 −1–1 × 10 −11 mg/ml in MTT test and ALP activity assay; 1 × 10 −1–1 × 10 −7 mg/ml
in nhibition of osteoclast
MEEuC showed potent induction of growth hormone (GH) release in the same extent as GH releasing factors (GRF) 1.0 mMMEEuC promoted cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast 32% at 1 × 10 −8 mg/ml
MEEuC promoted maturation of osteoblast 10% at 1 × 10 −1 mg/ml. MEEuC inhibited around 35% of osteoclast at 1 × 10 −3–1 × 10 −5 mg/ml
MTT assay shows the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast using osteoblast-like cells. ALP activity detection assays the activity of ALP, a specific enzyme relating to the maturation step of osteoblast
Praline incorporation test shows the effects on the synthesis of collagen participating in the matrix formation of osteoblast
[30]
N-hexane fraction of the methanol extract of cortex (NF-MEEuC)   Each fractions: 20 µg/ml in GH inducing test; 1 × 10 −1–1 × 10 −11 mg/ml in MTT test and ALP activity assay;
1 × 10 −2–1 × 10 −6 mg/ml in Praline incorporation test
NF-MEEuC showed potent induction of GH release in the same extent as
GRF 0.5 mM
 
Chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of cortex (CF-MEEuC)   CF-MEEuC showed potent induction of GH release in the same extent as GRF 0.5 mM
CF-MEEuC promoted maturation of osteoblast 38% at 1 × 10 −6 mg/ml
CF-MEEuC promoted synthesis of collagen participating in the matrix formation of osteoblast 40% at 1 × 10 −3
mg/ml
  
Ethylacetate fraction of the methanol extract of cortex (EF-MEE)    EF-MEE showed potent induction of GH release in the same extent as GRF
0.5 mM
EF-MEE promoted synthesis of collagen participating in the matrix formation of osteoblast 20% at 1 × 10 −5 mg/ml
  
Butanol fraction of the methanol extract of cortex (BF-MEEuC)    BF-MEEuC promoted cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast 38% at 1 × 10 −1 mg/ml   
Aqueous fraction of the methanol extract of cortex (AF-MEEuC)    AF-MEEuC promoted cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast 26% at 1 × 10 −6 mg/ml   
Geniposidic acid   10 µg/ml in GH inducing test; 1 × 10 −1–1 × 10 −11
mg/ml in MTT test and ALP activity assay;
1 × 10 −2–1 × 10 −6 mg/ml
in Praline incorporation test; 1 × 10 −1–1 × 10 −7 mg/ml in inhibition of osteoclast
Geniposidic acid inhibited activities of osteoclast in dose-dependent manner (IC50 at 4.43 × 10 −7 M)   
Geniposide   Geniposide promoted cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast 35% at 1 × 10 −4 mg/ml. Geniposide promoted synthesis of collagen participating in the matrix formation of osteoblast 20% at 1 × 10 − 3–1 × 10 −5 mg/ml   
Aucubin   Aucubin promoted cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast 34% at 1 × 10 −4 mg/ml
Aucubin promoted maturation of osteoblast 29% at 1 × 10 −11 mg/ml. Aucubin inhibited activities of osteoclast in dose-dependent manner (inhibited 40% at 1 × 10 −3 mg/ml)