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Table 1 Information on flavonoids for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy

From: Flavonoids on diabetic nephropathy: advances and therapeutic opportunities

Compound Animal/Cell model Dosage Target/Pathways/Mechanism Reference
Quercetin Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 50 mg/kg/d TNF-α/IL-1β/AGEs [31]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 150–350 mg/kg TNF-α-p38 MAP kinase signalling pathway [32]
  Leprdb/Leprdb(db/db) mice 50–100 mg/kg SCAP-SREBP2-LDLr signalling pathway [33]
  Leprdb/Leprdb(db/db) mice 100–150 mg/kg Hippo pathway [40]
  Sprague Dawley rats 10 mg/kg IcaM-1 [35]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 100 mg/kg NF-kB/SIRT1 [36]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats/NRK-52E cells 10 mg/kg reduce ROS [39]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 25 mg/kg TGF-β1 [38]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 25–100 mg/kg NLRP3 [34]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 50 mg/kg TGF-β1/CTGF [37]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 10 mg/kg PKC/MARK pathway [41]
  Human mesangial cell (HMC) 100 µM (in vitro) NF-κB signalling pathway [42]
Baicalin High glucose-induced podocyte 6.25–25 μM (in vitro) Sirtuin 1/NF-κB signalling pathway [46]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN mice 15–45 mg/kg/d microRNA-124/TLR4/NF-κB axis [47]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN mice 160 mg/kg MAPK pathway/NF-κB signalling// TGF-β/Smad3 pathway [48]
Kaempferol Streptozotocin-induced DN mice 10 mg/kg TRAF6 [51]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN mice/GLUTag cell lines 50–200 mg/kg;1–50 μM (in vitro) GLP-1/RhoA/Rho kinase [53]
  NRK-52E and RPTEC cells 5–50 μM(in vitro) RhoA/Rho kinase [52]
Myricetin Streptozotocin with cadmium induced DN rats 1.0–1.5 mg/kg SREBP-1a/SREBP-1c/SREBP-2/TGF-β1/VEGF/PPAR-α [59]
  Streptozotocin with cadmium induced DN rats 1.0 mg/kg GLUT-2/GLUT-4/IRS-1/IRS-2/PKB [58]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 6 mg/d GPx/XO [57]
Rutin Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 100 mg/kg MMPs [63]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 10–90 mg/kg TGF-β1/Smad/ECM and TGF-β1/CTGF/ECM signalling pathways [64]
  HRGECs 12.5–50 μM (in vitro) ROS/Rhoa/ROCK Signalling Pathway [65]
  Glomerular mesangial cells 0.2–0.8 μM (in vitro) ACTA2 and p38 protein [66]
  Alloxan-induced DN rats 100 mg/kg AQP2/AQP3/V2R [67]
  Alloxan-induced DN rats 100 mg/kg GF-β1/GRP78/CHOP [68]
Apigenin Streptozotocin-induced DN mice 20 mg/kg TNF-α/IL-6/NF-κB/MAPK signalling pathway [72]
  HK-2 cells 100–200 μM (in vitro) Nrf2/HO-1 [71]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN mice 25–50 mg/kg Nrf2/HO-1/NF-kB Signalling Pathway [71]
Luteolin Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 80 mg/kg Nphs2 [74]
  Leprdb/Leprdb(db/db) mice 50 mg/kg STAT3 pathway [75]
  Nesangial cells MPC-5 cells 30 μM (in vitro) IL-1β/NLRP3 [76]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 200 mg/kg SOD/MDA/HO-1 [77]
Naringin Rat glomerular mesangial cells 5–80 μM (in vitro) NLRP3 [80]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 20–80 mg/kg NOX4 [81]
Naringenin Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 5–10 mg/kg IL-1 [82]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 50 mg/kg let-7a/TGFBR1 signalling pathway [83]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats/NRK-52E cells 25–75 mg/kg; 0.01–1 μM (in vitro) CYP4A/20-HETE/PPARs [84]
Hesperidin Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 50–150 mg/kg Nrf2/ARE/glo1 pathway [88]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 100 mg/kg α-KL/FGF-23 pathway [89]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 40 mg/kg TGF-β1-ILK-Akt signalling pathway [90]
Genistein Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 10 mg/kg ERK [93]
  Alloxan-induced DN rats 0.025–0.1% NF-kB/(MCP-1)/TGFβ-1 [94]
  Mouse podocyte cell lines 20 μM (in vitro) mTOR signalling pathway [95]
Proanthocyanidin Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 250 mg/kg Nrf2 signalling pathway [98]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 250 mg/kg Caspase-12 pathway [99]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 250 mg/kg AGEs/RAGE [100]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 125–500 mg/kg AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1a signalling/PGC-1α/SIRT1/AMPK [101]
  Streptozotocin-induced DN rats 500 mg/kg TGF-β1/AGEs/RAGE/CTGF [102]
Eriodictyol Mesangial cells MPC-5 cells 0–25 μm (in vitro) Akt/NF‐κB pathway [104]
Morin Mesangial cells MPC-5 cells 25–50 μm (in vitro) p38 MAPK/JNK signalling pathway [107]
Tangeretin db/db mice 10 mg/kg EMT/E-cadherin/P-cadherin [109]
  Human glomerular mesangial cells 0–26 μm (in vitro) ROS/MDA/FN/ERK signalling pathway [110]