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Table 2 Chemical constituents of natural medicines to treat PAH

From: Bioactivities and mechanisms of natural medicines in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension

Classification No Chemical component Molecular formula IUPAC name References
Alkaloids 1 Ligustrazine C8H12N2 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine [75, 76]
Alkaloids 2 Tetrandrine C38H42N2O6 (1S,14S)-9,20,21,25-tetramethoxy-15,30-dimethyl-7,23-dioxa-15,30-diazaheptacyclo[22.6.2.23,6.18,12.114,18.027,31.022,33]hexatriaconta-3(36),4,6(35),8,10,12(34),18,20,22(33),24,26,31-dodecaene [77]
Flavonoids 3 Breviscapine C21H18O12 (2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-6-[5,6-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxochromen-7-yl]oxy-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid [79]
Flavonoids 4 Puerarin C21H20O9 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl) oxan-2-yl] chromen-4-one [80, 81]
Flavonoids 5 Genistein C15H10O5 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) chromen-4-one [82]
Flavonoids 6 Baicalein C15H10O5 5,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one [83, 84]
Flavonoids 7 Quercetin C15H10O7 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one [85]
Flavonoids 8 Isoquercitrin C21H20O12 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl) oxan-2-yl] oxychromen-4-one [86]
Flavonoids 9 Dihydromyricetin C15H12O8 (2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one [87]
Polyphenols 10 Danshensu C9H10O5 (2R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid [88]
Polyphenols 11 Salvianolic acid A C26H22O10 (2R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(E)-3-[2-[(E)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl]prop-2-enoyl]oxypropanoic acid [89]
Polyphenols 12 Resveratrol C14H12O3 5-[(E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]benzene-1,3-diol [92]
Terpenes 13 Dihydroartemisinin C15H24O5 (1R,4S,5R,8S,9R,10S,12R,13R)-1,5,9-trimethyl-11,14,15,16-tetraoxatetracyclo[10.3.1.04,13.08,13] hexadecan-10-ol [93]
Terpenes 14 Triptolide C20H24O6 (1S,2S,4S,5S,7R,8R,9S,11S,13S)-8-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-propan-2-yl-3,6,10,16-tetraoxaheptacyclo[11.7.0.02,4.02,9.05,7.09,11.014,18]icos-14(18)-en-17-one [94, 95]
Terpenes 15 Paclitaxel C47H51NO14 [(1S,2S,3R,4S,7R,9S,10S,12R,15S)-4,12-diacetyloxy-15-[(2R,3S)-3-benzamido-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy-1,9-dihydroxy-10,14,17,17-tetramethyl-11-oxo-6-oxatetracyclo[11.3.1.03,10.04,7]heptadec-13-en-2-yl] benzoate [96]
Terpenes 16 Glycyrrhizin C42H62O16 (2S,3S,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6S)-2-[[(3S,4aR,6aR,6bS,8aS,11S,12aR,14aR,14bS)-11-carboxy-4,4,6a,6b,8a,11,14b-heptamethyl-14-oxo-2,3,4a,5,6,7,8,9,10,12,12a,14a-dodecahydro-1H-picen-3-yl]oxy]-6-carboxy-4,5-dihydroxyoxan-3-yl]oxy-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid [98]
Quinones 17 Thymoquinone C10H12O2 2-methyl-5-propan-2-ylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione [99]
Quinones 18 sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) C19H17NaO6S sodium;1,6,6-trimethyl-10,11-dioxo-8,9-dihydro-7H-naphtho[1,2-g][1]benzofuran-2-sulfonate [90, 91]
Quinones 19 Hydroxysafflor yellow A C27H32O16 2,5-dihydroxy-6-[(E)-1-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enylidene]-2,4-bis[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-dione [101]
Glycosides 20 Salidroside C14H20O7 (2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethoxy]oxane-3,4,5-triol [102, 103]
Glycosides 21 Polydatin C20H22O8 (2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[3-hydroxy-5-[(E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]phenoxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol [104]
Glycosides 22 Icariin C33H40O15 5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-7-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-3-[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxychromen-4-one [105]
Lignans 23 Arctigenin C21H24O6 (3R,4R)-4-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-3-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]oxolan-2-one [106]
Coumarins 24 Praeruptorin A C21H22O7 [(9S,10S)-10-acetyloxy-8,8-dimethyl-2-oxo-9,10-dihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromen-9-yl] (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoate [108]
Polysaccharides 25 Astragalus polysaccharides C10H7ClN2O2S 2-(chloromethyl)-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3-thiazole [109]