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Table 4 Pharmacological effects of extracts derived from natural medicines for PAH

From: Bioactivities and mechanisms of natural medicines in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension

Chinese herbs Extractive fraction Models Dose/concentration Efficacy Refs
Rhodiola crenulata Water extract SD rats 5 g/kg (p.o.) Decadienyl-l-carnitine↓, CPT1A↓, PPARγ↓, LC3B↓, ATG7↓ [114]
Sceptridium ternatum Ethyl acetate extract SD rats 5 g/kg (p.o.) mPAP↓, RVHI↓, α-SMA↓, NF-κB↓ [115]
Blueberry Blueberry extract Wistar rats 100 mg/kg (p.o.) mPAP↓, SOD↑, ETA↓, NADPH↓ [116]
Moringa oleifera leaf Water extract Wistar rats 30 mg/kg (i.v.) mPAP↓, NO↑ [117]
Terminalia arjuna Water extract Wistar rats 250 mg/kg (p.o.) mPAP↓, RVHI↓, Bcl2/Bax↑, NADPH↓ [118]
Barberry Water extract Wistar rats 200 mg/kg (p.o.) RVSP↓, mPAP↓ [119]
Withania somnifera Methanol and water extract SD rats 100 mg/kg (p.o.) RVSP↓, RVHI↓, PCNA↓, ROS↓, TNF-α↓, NF-κB↓, HIF-1α↓ [120]
Mimosa pigra Hydromethanolic extract Wistar rats 400 mg/kg (p.o.) mPAP↓, RVHI↓, p38 MAPK↓, [121]