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Table 2 The classic prescriptions contained D. superbus

From: Dianthi herba: a comprehensive review of its botany, traditional use, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

Preparation names Composition crude drug names Traditional uses The role of Dianthi herba The origin of ancient books
Bazheng Powder Dianthi herba (5 g), Polygoni avicularis herba (5 g), Plantaginis semen (5 g), Gardeniae fructus (5 g), Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma (5 g), Rhei radix et rhizoma (5 g), talcum powder (10 g) Treating dysuria, and stranguria ( difficulty in urination) due to hematuria Clearing damp-heat Taiping Huimin Heji Jufang (Song Dynasty, A.D. 1151)
Dianthi herba (10 g), Plantaginis semen (10 g), Polygoni avicularis herba (10 g), Akebiae caulis. (10 g) Treating cystitis, urethritis, acute prostatitis, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis Clearing damp-heat TWelfare Pharmacy (Song Dynasty, A.D. 1078–1085)
Lixiao Powder Dianthi herba (30 g), Gardeniae fructus (15 g), Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma (22 g) Clearing heat-fire, and promoting diuresis for stranguria Alleviate diuresis Taiping Huimin Heji Jufang (Song Dynasty, A.D. 1151)
Gualouqumai Pills Dianthi herba (3 g), Trichosanthis Fructus (6 g), Poria (6 g), Dioscoreae rhizoma (6 g), Aconiti lateralis radix praeparata (5 g) Treating dysuria, edema and polydipsia Warming yang in diuresis Jinkui Yaolue Fanglun (Han Dynasty, A.D. 219)
Qumai Decoction Dianthi herba (30 g), Alismatis rhizoma (45 g), talcum powder (45 g), Stephaniae tetrandrae radix (23 g), Scutellariae radix (7.5 g), Rhei radix et rhizoma (7.5 g), Mantidis Oötheca (40 pieces) Treating polydipsia, weight loss, dysuria and edema Treating retentionofurine Waitai Miyao (Tang Dynasty, A.D. 752)
Dianthi herba (45 g), Scutellariae radix (30 g), S. japonica (30 g), Angelicae sinensis radix (23 g),Paeoniae radix alba (23 g), Akebiae caulis (45 g), Poria (23 g), talcum powder (23 g) Treating stranguria due to the disturbance of dysuria Treating retentionofurine Shengji Zonglu (Song Dynasty, A.D. 1111–1117)
Qumai Pills Dianthi herba (15 g), Ginseng radix et rhizoma (15 g), Rhei radix et rhizoma (15 g),Angelicae sinensis radix (15 g),Paeoniae radix alba(15 g), Cinnamomi cortex (15 g), Poria (15 g), D. nemorosa (23 g) Treating peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure Promoting blood circulation Jifeng Pujifang (Song Dynasty, A.D. 960–1279)
Qumai Powder Dianthi herba (30 g), Astragali radix (30 g), Asari radix et rhizoma (30 g), Paeoniae radix alba (30 g), Coicis semen (30 g), Chuanxiong rhizoma (30 g), Vignae semen (30 g) Treatment of dysuria Expelling abscess and dredging channels and collaterals Liujuan Zigui Yifang (Qi Dynasty, A.D. 495–499)
Digeda-4 Decoction Dianthi herba (1.25 g), L. rotatum (1.25 g), N. scrophulariiflora (1.25 g), Gardeniae fructus (1.25 g) Cooling blood, curing sore throat, thirsty and agitated, eliminating heat in the liver and gallbladder Clearing blood heat Gan Lu Si Bu (Qi Dynasty, A.D. 1704–1788)
Sijinqumai Pill Dianthi herba (10 g), Lysimachiae herba (20 g), L. japonicum (20 g), Curcuma rcenyujin (10 g), Galli gigerii endothelium corneum (5 g) Alleviate ureteral calculi Clearing heat and diuresis Lin Zhen Zhi Yan (Dong. J.H. 1986)
Shi Wei Powder Dianthi herba (30 g), P. lingua (60 g), Plantaginis semen (90 g), M. verticillata (60 g) Treating gonorrhea, adverse urination, and stabbing pain when drowning Clearing blood heat Zheng Zhi Hui Bu (Qi Dynasty, A.D. 1687)
  1. D. nemorosa, Draba nemorosa L; S. japonica, Stachys japonica Miq.; L. rotatum, Lomatogonium rotatum (L.) Fries ex Nym; N. scrophulariiflora, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) D.Y.Hong; L. japonicum, Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw.; P. lingua, Pyrrosia lingua; M.verticillat, Malva verticillata L